Korfball was developed in 1902 by a Dutch Primary School teacher1.The main catalyst for the development of korfball was a perceived need for a competitive mixed sport that relied on cooperation, where rules were designed to encourage boys and girls to participate on a level playing field, refute violence and form an egalitarian game2 .Within this context, Korfball offered an innovative and quite radical alternative to single-sex team sports that had been introduced to and developed in schools around the same time 3.
Korfball is a team sport that comprises elements of basketball and netball. The aim of the game is to score goals by shooting the ball through the basket, known as the korf 4, which is situated high enough that ‘dunking’ is not possible 5.To do this, players must escape from their personal opponent with skills of passing the ball and moving quickly and efficiently6 .Winning a korfball match comes from successfully scoring goals whilst also inhibiting the other teams scoring7.Teams are made up of eight players, with four women and four men on each team8. To ensure this equality and eliminate unfairness, women only mark women and men only mark men, so players are only playing directly opposite their own sex. This arguably weakens traditional sporting advantages of height, muscular strength and speed 9.To limit probable contact, players have protected possession of the ball, meaning that whilst a player has possession no other player can take possession without the ball leaving their hands 10. To add to the promotion of equality and teamwork, solo play is forbidden 11 , this would include dribbling the ball and running with the ball. The concept of playing together is a key constituent and the rules make teamwork obligatory 12.During a korfball match, two men and two women from one team attack, whilst the other two men and women from that team defend in the opposite section13.In essence, due to the splitting of the playing area into two halves, a four-on-four ‘duel’ takes place within each rectangle 14 As soon as two goals have been scored (by either team, or a combination of the two teams), the defenders and attackers swap ends, and in doing so they also swap roles, so attackers become defenders and vice versa15.An important structural element of the korfball game is the need to be vocal. As players mark their opponents closely, often facing them, their teammates inform them of the play going on around them. Being vocal is embedded deeply into the way korfball is played, with players calling shots by opponents, and informing their teammates if opponents have a good position to feed the ball out for shots.
1.2. Injuries in Korfball The chance that a team is facing an injury from which a player is not able (temporarily or for a longer time) to play is 4.6 injuries in 1000 hours playing korfball. Injuries in Korfball
In our sport, Korfball, the chance to get an injury is rather high.Normally there are 1.9 injuries in 1000 hours of playing a sport. In korfball there are 4.6 injuries in 1000 hours of playing korfball.
What are the causes of sport injuries?Almost half of the presented korfball injuries (49%) occur when the player falls. In almost one third of the cases, the injury occurs through contact with an object, usually a ball. A smaller part of the players, are injured by personal contact or acute physical (over)load.Most injuries occur while playing a game (69%). Fewer injuries happen during training. (27%)The top five factors that contributed to injuries (according to the injured player) are as follows:* contact with players (36%)* stumbling and twisting (19%)* wrong landing (15%)* turning (15%)* Description (11%)
What is the nature of the injuries?32% of injuries to the fingers33% are ankle injuries (usually an ankle distortion). 8% of the injured players have a knee injury or a knee distortion. An Achilles tendon rupture is rare.Besides this: seven out of ten injuries are acute. The number of injured women and men is the same. The average duration of an injury is 31 days.,
( Consument en Veiligheid” Korfbalblessures Augustus 2010) (17)
The most commonly occurring injury in korfball is a sprained or twisted ankle. In most cases, the injury occurs following a landing on the outside of the foot whereby the foot twists too far inwards. On the outside of the foot, capsula, ligaments and nerve fibre can be damaged due to overstretching. On the inside cartilage can be damaged by excessive compression. Depending on the seriousness of the injury, the tissue on the outside is either stretched or torn. This damage causes bleeding in the ankle. As a result, the ankle swells, (after a short time) bruises and becomes painful. Muscle and nerve fibre does not automatically regain its original function. Muscle and nerve fibre must be trained. This is possible with simple balance exercises. In addition, the ankle must be protected to prevent the risk of recurrence.
1.2.2 Knee :
The knee is a joint susceptible to injury. The knee joint can be damaged through twisting. In such a twisting incident (cruciate) ligaments and meniscus tissue can be damaged. Injury to the meniscus can cause swelling and it may no longer be possible to correctly bend and extend the knee. Serious injury to the cruciate ligaments often causes internal bleeding or accumulation of fluid. The knee then feels swollen and warm, is painful and no longer moves well. In the event of a serious twisted knee , cruciate ligaments and the inner meniscus are often both damaged. If injury to the cruciate ligaments is suspected, it is important that the correct diagnosis be made by a sport physician and/or sport physiotherapist.
1.2.3 Quadriceps :
The attachment of this muscle below the knee can cause pain problems due to overburdening. This is a common occurrence amongst young sportsmen and women who have undergone a growth spurt. The bones first increase in length, followed only then by the muscles and tendons. Many young sportsmen and women start to participate more frequently in sport, specifically in the period when they experience growth spurts. As a result, particularly this muscle attachment can become strained. The pain is generally below the patella.
1.2.4 Patella :
The most commonly occurring knee injury in korfball is irritation of the joints cartilage behind the kneecap. This is an often difficult to localise pain perceived around and behind the kneecap. The pain above all occurs during or after running. During bending and stretching, the knees may ‘crack and creak’ and sometimes swell up following major exertion (korfball match). A diagnosis can be made by a sport physiotherapist and/or sport physician. Depending on the diagnosis, the correct measures can be taken. Possibilities include good shoes, muscle-strengthening exercises, stretching exercises and sufficient recovery.
An acute thumb injury generally occurs as a result of poor catching technique or the thumb becoming caught on or behind another player. The thumb then bends backwards. The symptoms are pain, swelling of the thenar and restricted movement around the thumb joint. Any movement of the thumb is particularly painful. As the thumb ligament is extended, there is often considerable pain without any clear instability in the joint. In the event of a tear, the pain and swelling increase, and there is greater instability. If the ligament is totally torn away, the pain can be manageable, because there is no further tension on the damaged ligament. However, the thumb is then considerably more mobile.Following the correct treatment, these problems generally disappear by themselves. The first stage is several days rest. You can then start to gradually move the thumb, guided by the level of pain. The way to prevent this injury occurring is to improve catching techniques.