Listthe 13 public school disability categories. According to Rosenberg, Westling, & McLeskey (2011) the thirteenpublic school disability categories are as follows: autism, deaf-blindness,deafness, emotional disturbance, hearing impairment, mental retardation,multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, specificlearning disability, speech or language impairment, traumatic brain injury, andvisual impairment including blindness (pps.7-8). 2. Explainwhat is meant by continuum of services in special education.
The continuum of services as related to special education can be definedas the range of services which must be available to the students of a schooldistrict so that they may be served in the least restrictive environment. (Rogers, Dr. Joy J, Loyola University Schoolof Education. A Parent’s Guide to SpecialEducation/Special Needs. Retrieved from http://www.
disabilityrights.org/glossary.htm) 3. Describesome of the duties of the special education teacher in a co-teaching situation.
As a co-teacher, the special educator will plan with the generaleducation teacher to make sure students participate in a meaningful manner,he/she will help students work towards achieving IEP goals, most of the timetheir roles are indistinguishable. The special education will typically provideinstruction and support for students of various backgrounds and with diverseneeds (Rosenberg, Westling, & McLeskey, 2011, p. 9). 4. Howis a self resource room different from a self-contained classroom? The resource model is often referred toas a “pull-out” model, indicating that students withdisabilities are pulled out of the general education class for specialeducation instruction. In a self-contained model of instruction students withdisabilities receive all or most of their classroom instruction from specialeducation teachers. Even in these models, however, students with disabilitiesusually have opportunities to interact with their non-disabled peers duringsuch activities as art, music, physical education, recess, lunch, andassemblies.
(Mastropieri, M.A.Scruggs, T.E.
2010. What are Resource and Self- ContainedServices? Pearson Allyn BaconPrentice Hall. Retrieved from https://www.
education.com/reference/article/what-resource-self-contained-services/) 5. Explainthe differences between a physical therapist and an occupational therapist. While I workdirectly with OT’s and PT’s this was as interesting question to answer.
As compared with Physical Therapy,occupational therapy tends to focus more on evaluating and improving a person’sfunctional abilities. An OT is more likely to perform on-site assessmentsof both the home environment and work environment and give recommendations onsuitable adaptations of each to allow for a better quality of life. Theoccupational therapist is trained to modifying the physical environment as wellas training the person to use assistive equipment to increaseindependence. Occupational therapyfocuses more on improving life skills and incorporating adaptive tools at timescustomized by the therapist. Thephysical therapy profession tends to be more focused on evaluating anddiagnosing movement dysfunctions as well as treating a person’s injury itself.While an occupational therapist will often also do diagnosis, the physicaltherapist will be more likely to diagnose and treat the physical source of theproblem; the injured tissues and structures. (Differences Between Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy. (n.
d.).Retrieved January 25, 2018, fromhttp://physicaltherapyweb.com/differences-occupational-therapy-physical-therapy) 6.
Inyour own words, explain what is meant by teacher dispositions and why they areimportant. I believe a teacher’s disposition is theirbackground; everything about a teacher that is brought into their classroom andlearning environment. A set of personalbeliefs, morals, values, or attitude that makes up a person and which caninfluence their all areas of their life and which can hold true for manyoccupations. A teacher’s disposition though,is very important because I believe, it sets the tone for their classroom.
While it can allow for openness, fairness, honesty,and teaching the differences between a privilege and a responsibility, it canalso cloud judgement, cause a teacher to show cultural biases within theirwork, or even interfere with their better personal judgement. 7. Explainthe term personal teacher efficacy. Personal teacher efficacy is the extent to which teachers believe theywill be able to perform the actions that promote learning, is a key variablepredicting teacher practice and student outcomes. (Ross, J. A. (1994).
Theimpact of an inservice to promote cooperative learning on the stability ofteacher efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 10(4),381-394. doi:10.1016/0742-051x(94)90020-5) 8. List and explain the six components of IDEA.
In the Smart Kids LearningDisabilities online newsletter, the major components of IDEA are listed andexplained in the following information.1. FreeAppropriate Public Education-Under the IDEA, every child with a disabilityis entitled to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). It emphasizesspecial education and related services, which should be designed to meet achild’s “unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, andindependent living.” Public schools andlocal school boards are responsible for ensuring that every child with adisability receives a FAPE.2. Appropriate Evaluation-The IDEA requires that schools conduct”appropriate evaluations” of students who are suspected of having a disability. An appropriate evaluation mustbe implemented by a team of knowledgeable andtrained evaluators, must utilize sound evaluation materials and procedures, andmust be administered on a non-discriminatory basis.
An appropriate evaluationmust determine and make recommendations regarding a child’s eligibility forspecial education services in a timely manner.3. Individualized Education Plan-The Individualized Education Plan(IEP) was established by the IDEA to help ensure every child’s access to a FreeAppropriate Public Education. The IEP is a written document, developed by an IEP team, which draws upon existing evaluation information inorder to meet a student’s unique educational needs.4. LeastRestrictive Environment-The IDEA places a strong emphasis on placement in ageneral education setting. Under the IDEA, a student is guaranteed placement in the Least Restrictive Environment(LRE) possible. Therefore, an IEP team must explore a number ofalternatives for enabling a student to participate in the general educationclassroom.
These may include: classroom modifications, supplementalaids and services, alternative instructional methods, etc. If an IEP team determines that a studentcannot be satisfactorily educated in a general education setting, then the teammust make responsible efforts to determine the LRE for that student outside ofthe general classroom.5. Parent Participation-The IDEA has a special provision for “parentparticipation in placement decisions.” Under this provision, state educationalagencies and local school boards must ensure that the parents of a child with adisability are members of any group that makes decisions regarding theplacement and LRE of that child. Parentshave the right to equal participation in this process, and are entitled tonotification of a planned evaluation, access to planning and evaluationmaterials, and involvement in all meetings regarding their child’s placement.Additionally, parents retain the right to refuse further evaluation of theirchild.
Both students and parents must be invited to IEP meetings, and the IDEAexplicitly establishes a role for the parent as equal participant and decisionmaker.6. Procedural Safeguards-Finally, the IDEA establishes procedural safeguardsto help parents and students enforce their rights under federal law.
Theprimary purpose of this requirement is twofold: safeguards protect parentalaccess to information pertaining to placement and transition planning; andprocedures are put in place to resolve disagreements between parents and schools regarding the placement of astudent. Under the IDEA proceduralsafeguards, parents have a right to review all educational records pertainingto their child, receive notice prior to meetings about their child’sevaluation, placement, or identification, and to obtain an IndependentEducational Evaluation (IEE) for consideration at such meetings. If disagreements arise, parents have theright to request mediation or due process hearings with state-level educationagencies, and beyond that may appeal the decision in state or federal court. (YourChild’s Rights: 6 Principles of IDEA.
(n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2018, fromhttp://www.smartkidswithld.
org/getting-help/know-your-childs-rights/your-childs-rights-6-principles-of-idea/)9. Listand explain the components of an individualized education program (IEP) According toRosenburg, Westling, and McLesky, an IEP, provided within a school district, mustconsist of the following information: 1. The student’s current levels ofacademic and functional development. This section gives the child’s educational levels and how the levelsaffect participation and performance in general education. At the preschool level it must tell how thedisability affects the child’s ability to participate in age appropriateactivities.2. A statement of measurableannual goals and benchmarks/short term objectives for those evaluated throughalternative assessments. The goalsrelate to meeting the needs of the child as a result of the disability.
Themust addresses the educational needs of the child as well. 3. A statement of the specialeducation, related services, and supplementary aids or services that will beprovided. This section lists themodifications or supports provided in order for advancement towards goals bythe students, for their participation and progress in general education, andparticipation in extracurricular or nonacademic activities with typicallydeveloping peers.4. A statement about the child’s participationin state- or district-wide assessments of student achievement. This lists and individual modifications inthe administration the assessment in order for the child to participate.
5. The projected dates forbeginning services and modifications. The dates reflect the services as described in number 3 and explaintheir anticipated location, frequency, and duration of the service that hasbeen recommended and will be provided. 6. A progress measuring statementtelling how the progress will be measured and how the family will be regularlyinformed of the progress. This muststate the child’s progress and the extent to which the progress is sufficientto enable the child to achieve the goals by the end of the year. (Rosenburg,Westling, & McLesky, 2011, p. 93) 10.
Identifyand explain the two major changes that came from IDEA 2004. While there were several majorchanges that came from IDEA 2004, the were actually three major changes that Icould find. They were: Highlyqualified teachers. All special education teachers are to becertified in special education. Individualizededucation programs (IEPs).
Each IEP must contain annual goals thatare measurable along with a description of how the child’s progress towardmeeting those goals will be measured and reported. Specific learning disabilities. Anew provision releases schools from the current requirement to show a severediscrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability to determine if achild has a specific learning disability. The school or agency may use ascientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation process. The intent of the IDEA Improvement 2004 wasto ensure that a quality program is provided for all children with specialneeds (Kirk et al., 2006).(Driscoll, A., & Nagel, N.
Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act (IDEA). Retrieved January 26, 2018, fromhttps://sites.ed.gov/idea/idea-regulations-technical-changes/) 11. Discuss howthe civil rights movement affected special education. The civil rights movement had major affects on special education callingfor not only causing legislation to evolve, but inciting new litigationprotecting the rights and providing for students in special education. Beginning with Brown vs. Board of Educationwhich ended segregation in schools, Hoban vs.
Hansen looked at the concept ofdisproportionality of African Americans in lower track classes, and Larry vs.Riles which declared IQ tests as discriminatory as a means for placing AfricanAmericans in special education (Rosenburg, Westling, & McLesky, 2011, p. 34). 12. Identifythe members of the IEP team. An IEP team’s members include the following: at least one general education of thestudents; at least one special education teacher of the students; a schooldistrict representative who is knowledgeable about available service deliveryoptions and programs as well as the general education curriculum and related-serviceavailability; an evaluation specialist who can interpret the instructionalimplications of the assessments; other specialists who can provide importantinformation(related services providers, physicians, lawyers, and advocates; andfinally most important – the parents/guardians, surrogate and/or student whenappropriate. (Rosenburg, Westling, & McLesky, 2011, p.
38) 13. What arethe unique issues when suspending or expelling students with special needs. Some unique issues whensuspending or expelling students with special needs call for administrators todetermine if a problem behavior are a function of the disability or not – andthen can only remove the student from their placement for no more than 10 days andplace them in interim alternative educational settings (Rosenburg, Westling,& McLesky, 2011, p.
39). The discipline statute in the Individualswith Disabilities Act of 2004 includesthe legal requirements for manifestation determinations, placement asdetermined by the IEP Team, appeals, authority of the hearing officer, andtransfer of rights at the age of majority when considering suspension orexpulsion (Howey, P. Wright’s Law. WhatYou Need to Know about IDEA 2004: Suspending Children with Disabilities from School) 14. DescribeSection 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and how it applies to school students. Section 504, is a civil rights act that prohibits discrimination on thebasis of a disability in any program or activity that receives federal funding,and it ensures that the same activities and services available to others areavailable to those with a disability. A504 provides school students with accommodations, related services, andmodifications in order to affect howthey learn not what they learn(Rosenburg, Westling, & McLesky, 2011, p. 66, 96).
15. Describethe Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and how it applies to schoolstudents. The Americans withDisabilities Act (ADA) is often referred to as the Bill of Rights for studentswith disabilities and guaranteed the availability of a free and appropriateeducation, due process, and individualized education plans to all students withdisabilities (Rosenburg, Westling, & McLesky, 2011, p. 33). 16. Identifythe three-major statutory (legal) methods to address noncompliance of federallaws by schools and school districts.
What I was able to find in response tothis question is as follows:”The three components of the compliance monitoring system are(1) performance review, (2) policy review, and (3) complaint management. Thesethree system components take place within the context of three ongoingactivities: (1) the Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (CSPD), (2)oversight and enforcement, and (3) data design, analysis, and review.” There are then progressive sanctionsto follow when an LEA must correct non-compliance. They are mandatory first level sanctions,public hearing, mandatory second level sanctions, and mandatory second levelsanctions. What I was also able to findwas that under the mandatory third level sanctions there were different levelsas well. “Mandatory Third Level Sanctions, which are imposed 60 days after Level 2sanctions if noncompliance continues, require a choice of one of the followingoptions: (1) transference of federal and state special education funds to aneighboring LEA for oversight of the provision of special education in thenoncompliant district; (2) partial withholding of federal and state specialeducation funds while the LEA must continue to provide required services; (3)withholding of all federal and state special education funds while the LEA mustcontinue to provide required services; and (4) recovery by the state ofpreviously awarded federal and state funds.” (Wright,P.
W., & Wright, P. D. (2018).
Back to School on Civil Rights. RetrievedJanuary 26, 2018, from http://www.wrightslaw.
com/law/reports/IDEA_Compliance_5.htm) 17. Give feedbackabout this assignment. Were anyquestions unclear? Many of the questions seemed to reiterate information fromdiscussion questions. The wording ofsome of the questions seemed very broad but I felt you were looking for a morespecific answer – so in this matter I wouldn’t say unclear, but it made me veryunsure of how/what to answer. I had achallenging time answering number 10 and 16. This is a first ever online test for online courses as well – so I wasvery unsure of what to expect or how to answer. I am hoping that I answered appropriately and accurately.
I was not sure if you were looking for ourunderstanding of the material, but the way the items were worded it soundedmore like straight forward citations from our learning these past two weeks –with a couple questions asking our interpretation and understanding of thematerial.