1.Distilled water At the end of the purging process,the water is purified(distilled). 45% goes through mineralization stage(asshown in the diagram) and the other part is sent to other sectors, whereneeded(for example in industry and into homes).
2.Mineralized water If therewere only one source of mineralized water on the whole spacecraft, people wouldhave had to store the water in plastic bottles(plastic being one of the mosteconomical and practical materials for producing bottles), so water might haveslightly modified its chemical composition. Besides this, there would have beenan increased plastic usage. Getting mineralized water directly at home/work/school/greenhouse/farmetc. through a specific faucet is more environmental friendly and moreefficient. Therefore, there exists two types of faucets: one that bringsdistilled water and one that brings mineralized water.
These two types offaucets involve, obviously, different types of pipes. The wateris enriched with minerals and vitamins in proportion of 25% of the ReferenceDaily Intake; this way, we make sure that all the nutrients needed for abalanced life are provided. Details about the necessary nutrients are given inthe Biosphere&Alimentation part.
3.Pipes: types and structure Differenttypes of faucets(mineralized and non-mineralized water) involve, obviously,different pipes. Furthermore, different quantities of minerals and vitamins inthe water involve different pipes as well(because the water for people doesn’thave the same amount of nutrients as the water for plants).
Beside those,certain pipes have to the conduct grey/black water back at the purificationsystem for recycling. The pipeshave a is silicate structure. This structure made with silicates is veryresistant and eco-friendly(it does not contain VOCs); it helps in avoidingpipes’ penetration. 4.Peak use of water Thewater system has an excess of 10% of water to cope with a presumed peak use. What happens if a problem occurs in the water system Apart from the water that is constantly used andrecycled, on Ibis there full backup reservoirs.
In case any problem occurs andthe water system doesn’t work properly, there is a 4 million–literwater reserve, that should supply enough water for a couple of days(mentioningthat the water consumption would be strongly minimized in such a case). A veryimportant aspect is that the water is stored in special reservoirs: they don’tlet water and air interact. If the two interacted, CO2 would dissolve and itwould change water’s pH.
There is also a backup method ofcleaning water, used only in special cases: Polymeric Nanoadsorbents. If a leakof toxic substances occurs accidentally(what could happen in the industry, forexample) and the water needs advanced treatment, the purging process will bemodified: in the Ultrafiltration stage, there will be used PolymericNanoadsorbents in order to eliminate organics and heavy metals from water. Theyare engineered nanoparticles that “trap” inside of them toxic substances; theyare biodegradable and they aren’t a toxic adsorbent. However, the production ofpolymeric nanoadsorbents involves multistages that are complex, so this watertreatment method is not meant for everyday use. A backup method of producing wateris using chemical reactions, like these given as examples below:· CO+2H? C(solid)+ 2HO· 2HO+2HO? 2HO+ 3O· 2H+O? 2HO