1. X-rays and MRIs are only twotechnologies that have been created through atomic research. X-rays are ahigh-energy form of electromagnetic radiation and can easily pass through softtissues. MRIs use low energy waves, magnets and properties of the hydrogen nucleusto generate images. However, the possibilities of being able view even more partsof the body at different magnitudes may be possible. Increased funding for atomicresearch can provide new technologies that can help detect genetic diseasessuch as cancers, viruses and other life threatening conditions.
The technologieswould be able to give Doctors the visibility to help diagnose, track and assesspatient’s health. This would improve the quality of life for Ontarians which wouldcontribute to a healthier population. A reason why funding should not beincreased is because it is not accessible to all Ontarians and the well-off portionof the population are more likely to have scans such as the MRI done. Thiswould defeat the aims of increasing funding because innovations that could bemade would not be utilized to contributing to improve the health of the overallpopulation. 2.
Ultraviolet has shorter wavelengths andhas more energy than visible light. The 2distinct colours in line spectra are caused by 2 electron transitions. When an electronabsorbs energy from some external source, it jumps to a higher orbit or energylevel. The nucleus will eventually attract the electron back to the lower leveland then the energy that the electron initially absorbed will be emitted. Forultraviolet energy, the electron transition must be greater than that of visiblelight and the electron should be a greater distance between orbits of the atom. 3a) Zr: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s23d10 4p6 5s2 4d2 insert pic b) Zr4+ exists because the ionis trying to achieve a stability therefore, electrons must be lost from theouter shells specifically 4d and 5s to be more similar a noble gas. The easiestway to be similar to a noble gas, would be to lose four electrons rather thantrying to gain double that amount.
c) When the Zr atom and Zr ion is compared,it is clear the Zr atom will be more reactive and unstable because it does nothave a full stable octet like the ion. The Zr atom has 2 electrons on it’souter shell while the Zr ion has filled stable octet and has similar electronarrangement as the element Kr. 4. Orbital Overlap NH3insert pic 5a) insert pic b) 6a) insert pic b) The name of hybrid orbital found in NH3is sp3. Three orbitals are bonded and one orbital hasa solitary pair of electrons. c) Carbon has four electrons on the outershell with equal repulsion while Nitrogen has five outer electrons. Nitrogen containsfour orbits which includes one having two electrons and the other 3 having oneelectron each.
Carbon has three regions that include high electron densitywhile Nitrogen has four. 7i) CaBr2?EN=2.9-1.0?EN=1.
9 ii)Na3N?EN=3.0-0.9?EN=2.1 iii)CH4?EN=2.5-2.2?EN=0.3 b) i)CaBr2 will have ionic bondingbecause electronegativity of Bromine is much greater than that of Calcium ii)Na3N CaBr2 willhave ionic bonding because electronegativity of nitrogen is much greater thanthat of Sodium iii) CH4 will be non-polar covalentbonding because there is little difference in their electronegativity c) Na3N> CaBr2>CH4 We always find compounds containing metalsin this ranking order in ionic compounds with the greatest electronegativity.
8a) insert pic b) The shape will pyramidal since it has iodineis attached to 3 bond pairs and 1 lone pair c) It is polar because the oxygen’s negativecharge and iodine’s positive charge do not cancel each other out, so its remainsto oppositely charged ends. Iodine is the positive pole and oxygen is the more negativepole. The iodine pair of electrons electrons repel the oxygen electron pairsresulting in the pyramidal shape. 9a) insert pic b) tetrahedral c) It is a polar molecule because thecompound remains to have oppositely charged ends so the dipole did not cancelout. Chlorine is the negative pole and hydrogen is the positive pole. 10.
The bond atoms in these molecules arenot identical because the lone pairs in water repel the bonded pairs whichdecreases the bond angle. The lone pair have a greater repulsion force to repelthe 2 bonding hydrogen atoms, this causes the regular tetrahedral angle to be distortedhave a decreased bond angle. 11a) Carbon dioxide is suitable because itremoves stains and oils from fabrics while water alone cannot do that. Carbondioxide’s polar covalent bonds help it easily remove stains and oils b) Liquid carbon dioxide is a suitablesolvent because it occurs naturally in the environment and is relativelynon-polluting when compared to dry-cleaning solvents which are horrible for theenvironment. Some Dry-cleaning solvents have been even found to cause cancer.Another reason why Carbon dioxide would be a great solvent is because it doesnot change the shape or elasticity of clothes when washed which is a majorconcern of people using washing machines. A consequence of using carbon dioxide as solventis that it is very costly when compared to our current machines. Setting up theequipment and teaching consumers how to handle the solvent will cost money.
Also, there are other solvents that can remove stains more quickly than liquidcarbon dioxide 12a) London forces are present in allmolecules like halogens. As the size and number of electrons from Fluorine toIodine increase, the London Forces will increase in strength. As the number of electronsincrease in the chart, the easier it is from the atom to be polarized and LondonForces get stronger.
The greater the intermolecular force, the more energy isneeded to to change molecules from liquid to gas as the intermolecular forcesincrease. The reason why the boiling points increased from -88 to 184 isbecause the London Forces have increased too. b) The London force is directly related to thenumber of electrons. c) Astatine will be approximately 335degrees Celsius. 13. Ethane and Methanol has similarities intheir molar mass but their boiling points are vastly different which is caused dueto their differences in their hydrogen bonding. Ethane, a gas, does not form hydrogens bonds or even ionicbonds. However, since Methanol is polar and has hydrogen bonding since it is analcohol, it results in a higher boiling point.
14a) The cable must be made out of a strongdurable material to withstand different temperatures, objects it might comeinto contact with, strong winds etc. This is because the cable will be coveringa long distance and the temperatures of space near the Earth can be as hot as 120degrees Celsius and there are areas that have extreme cold in orbit. Anotherphysical property the cable should have is be light in weight so that it is notweighed down by gravity which would cause it to have problems remainingextended into space.
A chemical property that should have is to be made up ofstable compounds so it does not react with elements. We would not want thecable to reacting in an area such as the ozone layer to produce new compounds whenit reacts with the ozone which could cause cable to erode. b) I believe covalent network solids wouldbe best for cable. I believe this because it has a very high melting pointwhich would help the cable withstand high extreme temperatures without melting.Also, the cable would be hard causing it to be durable. It would also be insolubleto water and organic which adds to longevity of remaining strong through possiblenatural disasters such as tornados.
Lastly, the solid would be a poor conductor of electricity whichcompromises its ability to be reactive.