1. IntroductionSuicide isdefined by Youthline (2014, p .1) as “the act ofintentionally killing oneself”. It can be stated that suicide now is becoming aserious health issue in many countries with nearly 80,000 deaths each yearworldwide, means that every 40 seconds, some one dies bysuicide (WHO, n.
d). This increasing number of death cases puts suicide becomingthe tenth leading cause of death in United State and the third leading cause ofdeath among teenagers between the age from 10 to 14 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015).The statistic of Carroll (2017) estimated that between 2007 and 2015, suiciderates of teen boys rocketed from 10.8 to 14.2 per 100,000 and from 2.
4 to 5.1per 100,000 in teen girls. These number are really need to be concerned becauseit prove that now suicide attempts not only appear in adult minds but also affectthe thinking of adolescents. This paper is aimed at raising awareness aboutteenage suicide, including its causes, methodsand solutions,as well as giving useful advice to help teenagers overcome suicide attempts andsuicide behaviors.
2. Discussion of findings2.1. Backgroundinformation of teenage suicideTeenage suicide or suicidal adolescent is “the loss of life among the young”(Kok& Goh, 2011, para.
2). According to Centers for Disease Control andPrevention (2015), suicide is a growing health issue which has significantimpacts in the life of young people, become the third main reason for death ofyoung adults between 10 and 24 years old.Shockingstatistics have been published to describe how serious this matter is. Each year, there were nearly 4,600 adolescentsuicide cases occurred worldwide and this number has increased almost threefoldsince the 1940s (Centers for Disease Control, 2015). According to the alarmingstatistics from Psychology Benefits Society (2013), each day there are about 12young people die by self-killing methods and meanwhile, 25 suicide ideationsare created. Over the last few decades, a climbing trend of teenage suicide hasbeen noticed and reported not only in developed countries but also in some poornations. In Malaysia, nearly 7% of adolescents attempted suicide and hadself-killing ideation (Kok & Goh, 2011). This number does not differentmuch in U.
S, with 14.5% of students between the ages 14 to 17 told that theyusually had suicide thoughts and even turned them into actions (Cash &Bridge, 2009). There is more, as reported by Youthline (2014), suicide trend inNew Zealand had taken life of 124 teenagers in 2011, ranked secondly comparedwith other countries in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – OEDC. These rates was totallyshocking and need to be worried. Lubin et al. (2001) and Bilic et al. (2002)(as cited in Chatterjee & Basu, 2010) shared the same opinion that thedatas of deaths from suicide were varied from many nations, however, thisrising number among adolescents was universally similar.
Additionally, suicidealso differs from gender. “Boys are more likely than girls to die fromsuicide”, Centers for Disease Control (2015, para. 4) stated in their report.They also showed the number of male teenagers’s death accounted for about 81%while female teenagers’s death only made up 19%. While suicide actions are morecommon in boys, girls tend to have a higher number of suicide attempts andthinking than boys, Centers for Disease Control wrote.
Cash and Bridge (2009,para. 3) also shared the same thinking with Centers for Disease Control, they said”While suicide rates are higher among boys than girls, girls have higher rates of suicidalideation and attempted suicide”. This idea was totally argreed by Youthline(2014) that young male is a high risk group since 1967, with the number of thisgroup’s deaths increased three-time higher than young female group. Themysterious reasons for this huge gap was explained by Durkheim’s statement (ascited in Kok & Goh, 2011) that the emotions of male adolescents alwayseasier affected than female teenagers, resulted in higher risk of suicide. Themale tend to keep their personal secrets for themselvesand have less conversation with anothersabout their problems, unlike girls, they usually run away from theirdifficulties by actual suicide actions (Koh & Goh, 2011).It’s obviouslythat deaths of young people can bring the grief and pain to their families,friends, communities, even caused the loss of money in economy of the country (Youthline, 2014).2.2.
Possible causesof teenage suicide2.2.1. External factors2.3. Common methodsof teenage suicideThere areseveral suicide methods which were chosen by adolescents to put an end to theirlife.
Examing the ways of suicide in teenagers, Bridge, Goldstein and Brent (ascited in Cash & Bridge, 2009) introducedfirearms as the leading method of suicide for youth in America, followed byasphyxia and self-poisoning. Cash and Bridge also pointed out that suicidedeath cases by hanging among adolescents aged 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 in Americabetween 2003 and 2004 rose significantly from 0.31 to 0.68 per 100,000 person(119%) and from 1.24 to 1.
78 (44%), in turn. Also, in New Zealand, Youthline(2014) claimed that hanging, suffocation and asphyxiation were the most commonmethods of teenage suicide in 2011.”In this older age group, the primary methodchosen by boy is firearms, yet for girls, the common method is suffocation”, Simon(as cited in Scutti, 2017,para. 21) shared another opinion about the differentin ways of suicide between male and female teenagers in an article published byCNN. Also, in this article, Tisher (as cited in Scutti, 2017) said that therewere a dramatic number of female adolescents tend to use overdose as a way ofsuicide. As firearms werechosen by many adolescents in suicide actions, Caroll (2017) shared his ownview about the “popular” of this method.
He said “most suicides are impulsive”(para. 13), most of suicide decisions come suddenly and they these people knowthat only firearms are “devastatingly efficient” (Caroll, 2017, para.14).
According to another statistic of Caroll, over 85% of completed teenage suiciderelated to gun while self-poisoning made up much less percentage. All thesefigure mean that having access to gun or owning a gun in house can increase thenumber of successful suicide cases among young people. 2.4. Solutions forteenage suicideWhile thesuicide rates among youth keep increasing, many effective solutions have been found to reduce this problem.
In the survey of Kok and Goh (2011), they asked 270 youth aged 15-24 about the firstperson they would talk to when they had encountered suicide thoughts and theresult was surprised everyone. While peers and family members made up almost46% and 33% of the answer from these youngster, respectively, teachers seem tobe the least common source. From the result of this study, it is highly recommendthat the knowledge of community, especially of the people who often communicatewith at-risk youth