1. or suicidal adolescent is “the loss of

1.     Introduction

Suicide is
defined by Youthline (2014, p .1) as “the act of
intentionally killing oneself”. It can be stated that suicide now is becoming a
serious health issue in many countries with nearly 80,000 deaths each year
worldwide, means that every 40 seconds, some one dies by
suicide (WHO, n.d). This increasing number of death cases puts suicide becoming
the tenth leading cause of death in United State and the third leading cause of
death among teenagers between the age from 10 to 14 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015).
The statistic of Carroll (2017) estimated that between 2007 and 2015, suicide
rates of teen boys rocketed from 10.8 to 14.2 per 100,000 and from 2.4 to 5.1
per 100,000 in teen girls. These number are really need to be concerned because
it prove that now suicide attempts not only appear in adult minds but also affect
the thinking of adolescents. This paper is aimed at raising awareness about
teenage suicide, including its causes, methods
and solutions,
as well as giving useful advice to help teenagers overcome suicide attempts and
suicide behaviors.

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2.     Discussion of findings

2.1.        
Background
information of teenage suicide

Teenage suicide or suicidal adolescent is “the loss of life among the young”
(Kok
& Goh, 2011, para. 2). According to Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (2015), suicide is a growing health issue which has significant
impacts in the life of young people, become the third main reason for death of
young adults between 10 and 24 years old.

Shocking
statistics have been published to describe how serious this matter is.  Each year, there were nearly 4,600 adolescent
suicide cases occurred worldwide and this number has increased almost threefold
since the 1940s (Centers for Disease Control, 2015). According to the alarming
statistics from Psychology Benefits Society (2013), each day there are about 12
young people die by self-killing methods and meanwhile, 25 suicide ideations
are created. Over the last few decades, a climbing trend of teenage suicide has
been noticed and reported not only in developed countries but also in some poor
nations. In Malaysia, nearly 7% of adolescents attempted suicide and had
self-killing ideation (Kok & Goh, 2011). This number does not different
much in U.S, with 14.5% of students between the ages 14 to 17 told that they
usually had suicide thoughts and even turned them into actions (Cash &
Bridge, 2009). There is more, as reported by Youthline (2014), suicide trend in
New Zealand had taken life of 124 teenagers in 2011, ranked secondly compared
with other countries in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – OEDC. These rates was totally
shocking and need to be worried. Lubin et al. (2001) and Bilic et al. (2002)
(as cited in Chatterjee & Basu, 2010) shared the same opinion that the
datas of deaths from suicide were varied from many nations, however, this
rising number among adolescents was universally similar.

Additionally, suicide
also differs from gender. “Boys are more likely than girls to die from
suicide”, Centers for Disease Control (2015, para. 4) stated in their report.
They also showed the number of male teenagers’s death accounted for about 81%
while female teenagers’s death only made up 19%. While suicide actions are more
common in boys, girls tend to have a higher number of suicide attempts and
thinking than boys, Centers for Disease Control wrote. Cash and Bridge (2009,
para. 3) also shared the same thinking with Centers for Disease Control, they said
“While suicide rates are higher among boys than                                                                    girls, girls have higher rates of suicidal
ideation and attempted suicide”. This idea was totally argreed by Youthline
(2014) that young male is a high risk group since 1967, with the number of this
group’s deaths increased three-time higher than young female group. The
mysterious reasons for this huge gap was explained by Durkheim’s statement (as
cited in Kok & Goh, 2011) that the emotions of male adolescents always
easier affected than female teenagers, resulted in higher risk of suicide. The
male tend to keep their personal secrets for themselves
and have less conversation with anothers
about their problems, unlike girls, they usually run away from their
difficulties by actual suicide actions (Koh & Goh, 2011).

It’s obviously
that deaths of young people can bring the grief and pain to their families,
friends, communities, even caused the loss of 
money in economy of the country (Youthline, 2014).

2.2.        
Possible causes
of teenage suicide

2.2.1. 
External factors

2.3.        
Common methods
of teenage suicide

There are
several suicide methods which were chosen by adolescents to put an end to their
life. Examing the ways of suicide in teenagers, Bridge, Goldstein and Brent (as
cited in Cash & Bridge, 2009)  introduced
firearms as the leading method of suicide for youth in America, followed by
asphyxia and self-poisoning. Cash and Bridge also pointed out that suicide
death cases by hanging among adolescents aged 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 in America
between 2003 and 2004 rose significantly from 0.31 to 0.68 per 100,000 person
(119%) and from 1.24 to 1.78 (44%), in turn. Also, in New Zealand, Youthline
(2014) claimed that hanging, suffocation and asphyxiation were the most common
methods of teenage suicide in 2011.”In this older age group, the primary method
chosen by boy is firearms, yet for girls, the common method is suffocation”, Simon
(as cited in Scutti, 2017,para. 21) shared another opinion about the different
in ways of suicide between male and female teenagers in an article published by
CNN. Also, in this article, Tisher (as cited in Scutti, 2017) said that there
were a dramatic number of female adolescents tend to use overdose as a way of
suicide.

As firearms were
chosen by many adolescents in suicide actions, Caroll (2017) shared his own
view about the “popular” of this method. He said “most suicides are impulsive”
(para. 13), most of suicide decisions come suddenly and they these people know
that only firearms are “devastatingly efficient” (Caroll, 2017, para.14).
According to another statistic of Caroll, over 85% of completed teenage suicide
related to gun while self-poisoning made up much less percentage. All these
figure mean that having access to gun or owning a gun in house can increase the
number of successful suicide cases among young people.

2.4.        
Solutions for
teenage suicide

While the
suicide rates among youth keep increasing, many effective solutions have been found to reduce this problem. In the survey of Kok and Goh (2011), they asked 270 youth aged 15-24 about the first
person they would talk to when they had encountered suicide thoughts and the
result was surprised everyone. While peers and family members made up almost
46% and 33% of the answer from these youngster, respectively, teachers seem to
be the least common source. From the result of this study, it is highly recommend
that the knowledge of community, especially of the people who often communicate
with at-risk youth