INTRODUCTIONWind is a renewable energysource. According to the statistical data 2017-2018 provided by the Power GridCorporation of India, thermal power plants contributing 63 percent of totalpower generation. Due to the excess utilization of fossil fuels planet earth isrunning out of natural resources and there is an increasing rate of globalwarming which leads to unwanted calamities and devastation. Keeping this inmind power generation companies are looking forward to generate power byutilizing renewable energy resources. Wind and solar are the major contributesrenewable resources for the power generation. Wind is playing the vital rolerather than the solar because of the cost, efficiency and technicalitydifficulties of solar installation and power generation. India has an installedcapacity of 32280MW and the generating capacity is 46011.
52GWh power byutilizing wind energy. Windmills are the way togenerate power. In general a normal windmill or wind turbine consists of atower, 3 blades, and a generator which is connected inside to the bladesthrough a gear mechanism. When the blades rotate the kinetic energy in the windwill be consumed by the blades in the form of mechanical and it inturn convertinto electrical energy. But is there a way that an individual can have theirown power generating source by utilizing wind? The answer is yes. With thechanges in dimensions of wind turbine and a storage battery it is possible.
Ifthe effective and efficient wind turbine with the convenient small dimensionsinstall in any electric vehicle it can be serve well in transportation andreplace diesel and petrol vehicles permanently. 2.LITERATURE REVIEWThe windresource :A wind turbinetransforms the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy in a shaft andfinally into electrical energy in a generator. The maximum available energy,Pmax, is thus obtained if theoretically the wind speed could be reduced tozero:Pmax =1/2?v2 =1/2?AV3wherem_ is the mass flow through therotor, Vo is the wind speed, ? the density of the air and A thearea where the wind speed has been reduced. The equation for the maximumavailable power is very important since it tells us that the power increaseswith the cube of the wind speed and only linearly with density and area. Theavailable wind speed at a given site is therefore often first measured over aperiod of time before a project is initiated. In practice one cannotreduce the wind speed to zero, so a power coefficient Cp is definedas the ratio between the actual power obtained and the maximum available poweras given by Equation 1.1.
A theoretical maximum for Cp existsdenoted the Betz limit, Cp, max =16/27=0.593. Modern optimizedwind turbines operate close to this limit with Cp up to 0.5. Itis more efficient to use the lift force rather than simple drag as the mainsource of propulsion. Lift and drag are the components of the force perpendicularand parallel to the direction of the relative wind, respectively.
It is easy toshow theoretically that it is much more efficient to use lift rather than dragwhen extracting power from the wind. All modern wind turbines therefore consistof a number of rotating blades which look like propeller blades. If the bladesare connected to a vertical shaft, the turbine is called a vertical-axis windturbine, VAWT, and if the shaft is horizontal, the turbine is called ahorizontal-axis wind turbine, HAWT. For commercial wind turbines, the majorityare HAWTs and the following text therefore mainly focuses on this Figure1.
1 Horizontal-axis wind turbine, HAWT typeof machine. A HAWT, as sketched in Figure1.1, is described in terms of therotordiameter, the number of blades, the hub height, the rated power and the controlstrategy. Thehub height is important since the wind speed increases with the height abovethe ground, and the rotor diameter is important since this gives the area A inthe formula for the available power. The ratio between the rotor diameter D andthe hub height H is often approximately 1. The rated power is themaximum power allowed for the installed generator, and the control system mustensure that this power is not exceeded in high winds. The number of blades ismost commonly two or three. Two-bladed wind turbines are cheaper since theyhave one blade fewer, but they rotate faster and cause more flickering to theeyes, whereas three-bladed wind turbines seem calmer and therefore lessdisturbing in a landscape.
The aerodynamic efficiency is lower on a two-bladedthan on a three-bladed wind turbine. A two-bladed wind turbine is often, butnot always, a downwind machine, i.e. the rotor is placed downwind of the tower.Furthermorethe connection to the shaft is not rigid, the rotor being mounted ontheshaft through a hinge.
This is called a teeter mechanism and the effect is thatnobending moments are transformed from the rotor to the mechanical shaft. Such aconstruction is more flexible than the stiff three-bladed rotor, and some componentscan be built lighter and smaller and thus reduce the price of the wind turbine.The stability of the more flexible rotor must, however, be ensured. Downwindturbines are noisier than upstream turbines, since the passage of each blade inthe wake behind the tower at each revolution causes low-frequency noise. Let’s check outthe few companies which manufacture the small scale wind turbine for householdneeds.BergeyWindpower Wind Turbines :Bergey BWCXL.1 1000 watt :Bergey BWC XL.
1is a wind turbine rated for 1000 watt designed for household purposes.Specificationsof BWC XL.1 :Start-up WindSpeed: 3 m/s (6.7 mph)Cut-in WindSpeed: 2.5 m/s (5.6 mph)Rated WindSpeed: 11 m/s (24.6 mph)RatedPower: 1000 WattsMaximumPower: ~ 2000 Watts Cut-Out WindSpeed: NoneFurling Wind Speed: 13 m/s (29 mph)Max. Design WindSpeed: 54 m/s (120 mph)Blade PitchControl: None, Fixed PitchOverspeedProtection: AutoFurlThis windturbine has the rotor diameter 8.
2 ft i.e., 2.5m which is much lesser diameterthan the general wind turbines (having 7 – 9 m diameter).Small windturbines, up to 100 kilowatts, are typically close to where the generatedelectricity will be used, for example, near homes, telecommunications dishes orwater pumping stations.
Bergey windgenerators manufacturing the wind turbines for normal households at affordablecosts with low weights like XL.1 of around 170lbs. VORTEXBLADELESS: A bladeless turbine isdescribed in the form of a conduit providing a fluid flow channel. The conduithas an inner surface adapted to create a vortex in fluid flowing through thechannel. The vortex has sufficient force to cause rotation of the conduit.Members can be arranged on the inner surface to impel the fluid to form avortex. When at least a portion of the conduit is located in a housing having acoil arranged around the conduit and the conduit includes a magnet, rotation ofthe conduit by the vortex causes the magnet to rotate in the coil and generatean electric current.The turbine incorporatesducted propulsion within a central axis aperture.
Accordingly there are norotor blades thus an increased pressure differential can be created across theturbine without risk of damage. Preferably the conduit tapers inwardlyfrom a first end over a portion of a length of the conduit. In this way fluidis advantageously directed into the conduit. The conduit may be considered tobe divergent at the first end. The conduit may be formed as a frusto-conical,frusto-pyramid or horn shaped body on the portion of the length. Such anarrangement provides a funneling effect so that fluid entering the channel willbe impelled to rotate and create a vortex within the channel.Preferably the inner surfaceof the conduit includes one or more members directed into the channel. Morepreferably the one or more members each comprise a receiving surfacesubstantially facing the direction of fluid flow at a first or opening end ofthe channel.
The surfaces act to direct the fluid towards a central axis of theconduit while retaining a linear component such that the fluid rotates throughthe channel. The surface may be arranged at a constant angle to the axis of theconduit or to the inner surface. Advantageously the members are arrangedspirally on the inner surface. This arrangement aids the creation of the vortexby directing the fluid in a rotationally forward path.
The force of the fluidagainst the members will cause the members to rotate also and accordingly, theconduit will rotate.The radiusof oscillation is equal to the diameter of the installation at its top end(also its widest part). Vortex needs to be higher to sweep the same area. Itcan capture about 40% of the wind power contained in the air. Antonio Barrero-Gil, Santiago Pindado, SergioAvila; Extracting energy from Vortex-Induced Vibrations: A parametric study;Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, E-28040 Madrid,Svain; in this he studied that Here, Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIVs) of acircular cylinder are analyzed as a potential source for energy harvesting. Tothis end, VIV is described by a one-degree of-freedom model where fluid forcesare introduced from experimental data from forced vibration tests. Theinfluence of some influencing parameters, like the mass ratio m* or the mechanicaldamping C in the energy conversion factor is investigated.
The analysis revealsthat: (i) the maximum efficiency rM is principally influenced by themass-damping parameter m*C and there is an optimum value of m*C where rMpresents a maximum; (ii) the range of reduced velocities with significantefficiency is mainly governed by nf, and (iii) it seems that encouraging highefficiency values can be achieved for high Reynolds numbers.RobertCorrea,Eric Cremer,Wind harvesting via Vortex Induced vibration; BJS-WD14 ;inthis he studied that; There is a need for renewable energy sources to be morefeasible. The purpose of this project is to develop a compact device that isable to harvest wind energy and transform it into electrical energy using theconcept of vortex shedding. When calibrated correctly, the vortex shedding willinduce resonant oscillation. Electricity would be collected from thisoscillation using a magnet and coil assembly.
This method was proven to work inwater, but has not been applied to air currents. This team designed and built asmall-scale prototype to be tested in WPI’s closed circuit wind tunnel. Thewind harvester works at a moderate wind range of 5.4 to 6.6 m/s.
Data wascollected on the amplitude and frequency of motion of the cylinder during itslock-in condition. Calculations were done to find position, velocity, andacceleration of the system over a complete cycle. The results demonstrate apotential for vortex induced vibration to be utilized with wind to createelectricity, however it will be difficult due to the low density of aircompared to other fluid mediums, such as water.