1. the given IP address. It does this

1.   ARP –  Address Resolution Protocol: ARP, in themost basic sense, converts IP addresses to MAC addresses. When data arrives ata gateway, ARP is used to find the MAC address of the recipient using the givenIP address. It does this by first searching the address in the “ARP cache.

” Ifthe IP address is mapped to a physical address on this table, ARP will alertthe gateway and the data will be sent to the correct machine. If the address isabsent, then the protocol will send out a “request packet” throughout thenetwork to search for the correct IP. If the machine is found, the data will berelayed, and the cache will be updated. ARP operates on the Network layer ofthe OSI model, or the Internet layer of the TCP/IP model. Cisco makes the claimthat ARP classifies as both a second (Data Link) and third (Network) layerprotocol because IP addressing occurs at both levels. However, thisclassification is subject to debate.

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There are several other versions of ARP aswell. Inverse ARP is used by Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks in whichthe protocol builds and ATM map and sends unicast packets to servers at theother side of a connection. Reverse ARP, unsurprisingly, operates in thereverse of ARP.

RARP will request an IP address from a server after providing aMAC address. This protocol is typically used by workstations with no permanent storageand is overshadowed by DHCP.a.   https://techterms.com/definition/arpb.   https://www.

lifewire.com/address-resolution-protocol-817941c.   https://www.

cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/ipaddr_arp/configuration/15-mt/arp-15-mt-book/arp-config-arp.htmld.   https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/thread/36117 2.

   IPv6 –Internet Protocol Version 6: IPv6 is the latest version of the InternetProtocol (IP), designed to address the shortcomings of IPv4. IPv4 is an olderprotocol used to distribute IP addresses. Each address was 32 bits long,allowing for potentially 232 unique addresses. As the internet grewit became clear that all the addresses would eventually be exhausted, and sothe Internet Engineering Task Force created IPv6 to replace it.

IPv6 utilizes128 bit addresses, which allow for 3.4×1038 addresses. IPv6 (as wellas IPv4) operates at the Network layer of the OSI model, or the Internet layerof the TCP/IP model. The Network layer contains hardware like routers andswitches, and establishes network communication between devices.a.   https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb727113.

aspxb.   https://www.pcmag.

com/encyclopedia/term/45412/ipv6c.   https://techterms.com/definition/ipv6d.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv4_address_exhaustion 3.   IPSec –Internet Protocol Security: IPSec is the framework used to secure IPcommunications. It does this through two services: Authentication Headerprovides authentication and checks for changes during transition, andEncapsulating Security Payload performs authentication as well as encryption.

IPSec operates at the Internet layer of the TCP/IP model and provides securityfor nearly all other protocols in that model. Among others, IPSec defendsagainst data corruption and theft, credentials theft, and attacks fromuntrusted computers and networks.a.   https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc776369(v=ws.10).aspxb.

   https://f5.com/glossary/internet-protocol-security-ipsecc.   https://www.techopedia.com/definition/24842/internet-protocol-security-ipsec  4.   BGP – BorderGateway Protocol: BGP is a routing protocol that exchanges routinginformation for the Global Internet. Furthermore, it is the protocol thatprovides connections between Internet Service Providers (ISP).

BGP is utilizedon a much larger scale than is typically relevant for an end user. The protocolroutes based on paths and policies and boasts incredible scalability whencompared to other routing protocols. For this reason, ISPs use it to connect toone another, and some very large corporations use it when they need to connect throughmultiple ISPs. BGP can be found on the Application layer of the TCP/IP suite,or the Transport layer of the OSI model. The BGP as described is sometimesreferred to as the Exterior (or External) Border Gateway Protocol (EBGP).

WhenBGP exchanges routes within an Autonomous Network, then it is called InteriorBorder Gate Protocol (IBGP)a.   http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Border_Gateway_Protocolb.   https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/ios-nx-os-software/border-gateway-protocol-bgp/index.

htmlc.   http://www.enterprisenetworkingplanet.com/netsp/article.

php/3615896/Networking-101-Understanding-BGP-Routing.htmd.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Border_Gateway_Protocol  5.   UDP – UserDatagram Protocol: UDP is an unreliable connectionless protocolthat sends and receives packets with very little functions for error checkingor recovery. UDP operates at the Transport layer of both the TCP/IP and OSI models.UDP is typically defined as a contrast to TCP.

TCP provides error recoverymechanisms for the user to ensure integrity, at the cost of increased dateoverhead and time delay. UDP, on the other hand, does no perform error checkingand does not request acknowledgement from the recipient. The result is thatpackets may appear out of order of go missing entirely.

The benefit of thismethod is that it is far faster and more efficient, and thus is well suited forreal-time communications like VoIP, video streaming, or online gaming.a.   https://techterms.

com/definition/udpb.   https://www.lifewire.

com/user-datagram-protocol-817976c.   http://www.linfo.org/udp.html  6.   POP3 – PostOffice Protocol (Version 3): POP3 is an internet standard used to remotelyretrieve email through TCP/IP. POP3 allows a local client to collect theiremail from a server and store it locally.

However, it is exclusively used forretrieving email. The protocol for transferring mail between servers is theSimple Mail Transfer Protocol). POP3 is considered to be mostly obsolete now,having been replaced by the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP).

IMAP doesnot download all of a client’s messages automatically, and instead allows themto read the message directly from the service. This is usually faster and moreefficient, with the added benefit of allowing synchronization across multipledevices. POP3 and IMAP both operate on the Application Layer of the TCP/IPsuite.a.   https://www.

lifewire.com/what-is-pop-post-office-protocol-1171121b.   https://techterms.com/definition/pop3c.   https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc781974(v=ws.

10).aspxd.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post_Office_Protocole.

   https://support.office.com/en-us/article/What-are-IMAP-and-POP-ca2c5799-49f9-4079-aefe-ddca85d5b1c9  7.   HTTPS –HyperText Transport Protocol Secure: HTTP is an adaptation of HTTP, with theaddition of a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) for increased security. HTTP is thecommunication protocol that connects web servers over the internet. When a usertries to connect to a website through a browser, they submit an HTTP request tothe server. In turn, the server sends a response message and provides resourcesto the client.

However, this method is very vulnerable to attacks like theman-in-the-middle attack, so HTTPS has become the new standard. Using SSLencryption, the data sent back and forth between the client and server becomeillegible to anyone eavesdropping. HTTP and HTTPS are both on the Applicationlayer of the TCP/IP model, or the Sessions layer of the OSI model.a.   https://techterms.

com/definition/httpsb.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocolc.   https://www.

pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/44501/http  8.   DHCP – DynamicHost Configuration Protocol: DHCP is a protocol used to dynamically assignIP addresses, as well as other configurations, to devices on a network. DHCPperforms this task automatically rather than needing to be managed by networkadmins.

Furthermore, DHCP scales very well, allowing it to be implemented onsmall and large networks alike. Beyond IP addresses, DHCP will also configure adevice’s default gateway, DNS server info, and subnet mask. When a device firstconnects to a network, it broadcasts a DHCP query requesting this information.In return, a DHCP server will respond to perform the necessary configurations. Thisprotocol operates on the Application layer of TCP/IP, or the Sessions layer ofOSI.a.   https://www.

lifewire.com/what-is-dhcp-2625848b.   http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/DHCPc.


   https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/ssw_aix_72/com.ibm.aix.networkcomm/tcpip_dhcp.htm e.   https://docs.

microsoft.com/en-us/previous-versions/windows/it-pro/windows-server-2008-R2-and-2008/dd145320(v=ws.10)  9.   SLIP – SerialLine Internet Protocol: SLIP is an outdated Internet link protocol forconnection through serial ports or modems. It provides neither address norerror control, and as a result has been rendered almost completely obsolete.When transmitting data, SLIP sends the data frame followed by a single ENDtransmission character.

SLIP is preferred on microcontrollers for this reason,as there is very little overhead. For practically all other applications,however, SLIP has been replaced by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). PPP ispreferred for data transmission over the internet, as it features datagramencapsulation, a protocol for communication configuration and testing, andintegration control for the protocols of upper layers. SLIP and PPP can both befound on the Data Link layer of the OSI model, or the Network Interface Layerof the TCP/IP model.a.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Line_Internet_Protocolb.

   http://ccm.net/contents/282-ppp-and-slip-protocolsc.   https://www.ibm.

com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_ibm_i_72/rzaiy/rzaiyprotocol.htm  10.  ICMP –Internet Control Message Protocol:  ICMP is a support protocol for the TCP/IPsuite.

ICMP’s main function is to report errors to the source IP address whenthere is an issue with packet delivery. When such an error occurs, the protocolwill generate a message to send back, usually explaining what went wrong. ICMPis also capable of giving routing suggestions in the case of unresponsive hops.An ICMP header is composed of: The major type identifying the message, theminor code revealing more info about the type, and the checksum for errordetection. ICMPv6 is a more recent version of the protocol designed as anintegral function of IPv6. It features a number of new options and features,like the Neighbor Discover Protocol (NDP) and the Multicast Listener DiscoveryProtocol (MLD). ICMP operates on the network layer of the OSI model and theInternet layer of the TCP/IP model.a.

   https://techterms.com/definition/icmpb.   https://en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Internet_Control_Message_Protocolc.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Control_Message_Protocol_version_6d.