Given the limited resources both in terms of manpower and finance and further taking into account of the urgency of the project, the team had decided to focus on using some actual cases we have come encountered. We believe this direct experience is more meaningful and provide in depth reference to the topic for our research. Moreover, most team members hold membership in the sample organization we study so exchange of views and verifications of the facts would be direct.D. Approach Firstly, the team members made active collection of Max Weber’s Ideal Type of Bureaucracy. The team members also made a lot of collection via Internet, on-line library and printed matters from critics to the Ideal Type. After sharing the augments both for and against the Ideal Type In parallel, members complied list of cases each of the members have encountered in the course of the past 6 years using some sample organizations in which most team members are members.
Specifically, there is one academic and mutual benefit society within a college. There is also another sample organization, which mandate is to promote academic interest. The former sample has established for more than 10 years whilst the latter one was formed before 1940’s so both samples should provide reliable data.Cases are quoted to illustrate, particularly, where the characteristic of Ideal-Type fails to verify. Then the individual’s account are grouped and discussed among the team members in order to recognizing the shortfalls of the Ideal Type with a view of identifying common characteristics to consider in choosing an organization type (including Bureaucracy). The common characteristics are subsequently reviewed critically to become a checklist of organization structure.
E. Definition Ideal Type – Abbreviation within this document to represent Max Weber’s Ideal Type of Bureaucracy 2. REVISITING WEBER’S IDEAL TYPE A. General Since the beginning of history, human being have been working in pair or more for common purpose. Initially, the purpose was for hunting of wide animals as operation on sole basis proved to be ineffective and also inefficient.One may even argue the formation of family is the first organization form in the ancient society. In this regard, there are common goals of survival and reproduction. The structure is defined, man and woman (though some may argue polygamy form of society do not provide a solid membership base within “family”), there are defined members (father and mother), and there are procedures mainly exists in forms of norms, rituals and customs and these serve to define the roles, responsibilities and authorities between of the family members.
Simple organizations were developed into more system from hunting society, through agricultural society (feudalism), to industrial society. At the beginning of the 20th century, bureaucracy became a popular form of organization in pursuit for efficiency under what Max Weber’s argument of Rationality. Literally, bureaucracy was popular at that time as production is driver to success as there was still and unsatisfied worldwide demand. Nowadays, bureaucracy is pervasive in the world. They have both positive and negative effects.
“Bureaucratic benefits include establishing procedural safeguards…. Bureaucratic problems include blind adherence to rules that are sometimes contradictory”However, situation has changed, the world has shifted from production via sales through marketing to logistics focused.
Organization has evolved from closed to open. Bureaucracies are more open to environmental challenges than Weber’s day. Given these qualifications, there have been many criticisms against Weber’s Ideal Type. But before, we explore those criticisms. Let’s first revisit the some of the characteristics as argued by Max Weber.B. Clear Cut Hierarchy The principles of hierarchy and levels and graded authority refers to the system within which firm order of super and subordination is present and that there is supervision of the lower offices by the higher offices.
This system offers the governed an appealing channel against the decision of a lower office to its higher authority, in a definitely regulated manner. The principle of hierarchical office authority is fund in all types of bureaucratic structures, both private and state.In other words, every official in the hierarchy is accountable to his superior for his subordinates’ decisions as well as his own. To be able to discharge his responsibility for the work of his subordinate, he has authority over them, which means that he has the right to issue instructions and the subordinates have the duty to obey them. This authority is strictly circumscribed and confined to those directives that are relevant to the mandates of the ensuring office. The use of status prerogatives to extend the power f control over subordinates beyond the limits does not form the legitimate exercise of bureaucratic authority.C. Written Rules& Regulations Operations are governed by a consistent system of abstract rules and consist of the application of these rules t particular cases.
This system of standard is designed t to assure to uniformity in the performance of every task, regardless who does the work. Explicit rules and regulations define the responsibilities of each member of the organization and the relationship among them.In terms of collaboration, these written rules give a fair understanding of what to expect and what to be expected within the organizations. Written rules prevail to give unambiguous instruction and clear instruction to ensure the same standard and practice will be deployed regardless of office holder. Moreover, it serves as yardstick to measure performance of the office holders. A well nested rules and regulations shall cover higher office holders by that of the lower offices.E. Highly DOL The regular activities required for the purposes of the organization are distributed in a fixed way as official duties.
The clear-cut division of labor makes it possible to employee specialists in each particular position and to make everyone of them responsible for effective performance of his duties. High degree of specialization has become more important in modern days when the world becomes more complex and rapidly changing.High Division of labor aims at achieves high efficiency, as each office holder is professional in his own office of duties. The overall objective is that the organization perform resultantly at it higher efficiency and thereby to attain desired objective in the most rational and efficient manner.F. Impersonality Written rules and regulations ensures standard of performance of offices.
For these to conduct effectively, strict adherence to the rules and regulations are essential. This means conduct must be in formalistic impersonality. Every office is conducted rationally, rationally with regard to the established rules and regulations without personal interference of personal consideration. Strong personal feelings about subordinates or clients are likely to make decisions out of rationality and do not conform to the “rational objective” set for bureaucracy.
In other words, the exclusion f personal considerations from official business are a prerequisite for impartiality as well as for efficiency.