founded on workload techniques garner their staffing

Workload-based approach.
It is a comprehensive technique aimed at establishing an appropriate staff
levels consider the actual workload of police. Approaches founded on workload
techniques garner their staffing indicators from the conception of service
demand. The respective approach is differentiated by prerequisite to
systematically determine and analyze staffing needs founded on demand for
actual workload while, at the same time, accounting other features and
characteristics of the agency and service-style preferences. Further, workload
analysis is method that can be applied throughout the various levels for varied
functions and within the entire police departments.    

            The certified level can be showcased as artificial
benchmark regarding the need, which creates a misperception in police
leadership. Community and line staff that an agency is overworked and
understaffed when an actual number of staff do not match a ratified number of
officers (Baker & Harmon, 2006). In addition, unless the staffs in the
agency above the warranted level, selection, fluctuations, training, and
attrition might lead to actual levels of staffing to fall below the recognized
levels. Indicatively, Wilson, Rostker, and Fan (2010), ascertain that municipal
police organizations with more than 300 affirmed officers are averagely 5%
below the recognized sworn level. Since the ratified level is a derivative
arrived at independently of the workload, agencies might meet the demands of
the workforce, which have fewer officers when compared to the authorized
levels. Shane (2010) also avows that the perception of understaffing results
when personnel bemoans the departments that operate below the suggested levels
and can diminish productivity and morale. Afterwards, this makes the community
look like it does sufficiently fund the safety of the public.  The workload-based methodology approximates
future needs in staffing through modelling the service level regarding the
current activities (Orrick, 2008; Keycare Strategy Operations Technology,
2010). Further, Glendale Police Department (2009), Orrick (2008), and Shane
(2007) denote that undertaking an analysis on workload can help when
determining a need for extra resources or using the extant assets in terms of
location and time, evaluating group and individual performance together with
productivity, and then detecting the tendencies in workload, which might depict
the changing levels of activities and their respective conditions.  

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level method. In this
respective technique, the police agencies use budgetary allocations to
determine the number of personnel who might be allocated (Wilson et al, 2011).
Even though the accredited level can be established via formal staffing
assessments, it is driven by the amount of resources available coupled with the
political decision-making. Ideally, the sanctioned levels do not reflect
identifiable conditions like the demand for the services, efficiency analyses,
and community expectations; instead, they indicate incremental budgetary
process. In this regard, it is often challenging to determine the meaning of
authorized levels; for instance, in the year 2009, the Chicago Police
Department concurrently provided a reduced hiring of novel officers and a
retirement plan. In so doing, the year 2009 experienced inadequacy of
approximately 700 officers, a mark that was below the expected level, 13500
officers. Additionally, at least 1,000 officers were unavailable on a daily
basis either because of limited capacity of leave. In essence, the Fox News
(2009) depicted that the department was operating approximately 2,000 personnel
below the required levels.

According to
New Jersey Division of Local Government Services (2009), Shane (2007), Demers
et al. (2007), and Orrick (2008), the are no objective principles that have
been highlighted to follow when establishing the minimum level in police
staffing. The researchers ascertain that the staffing agencies might take into
account the call load, population, and crime rate among other variations to
determine minimum level of staffing. However, other agencies can establish the
minimum level through perceived need minus focusing on the factual basis of
officers present, workload, response time, distance travelled, immediate
availability, shifts of schedules, and the performance criteria (Shane, 2007).
In so doing, the method might result in deployment of either many officers when
the work is less or few personnel when the work is high. To subvert such an impediment
minimum levels are often increased than the warranted number by regarding the
organizational workload. On the contrary, even at the time when minimum
staffing is not reliant on the workload, it is common to find instances where
the officers indicate an augmented organizational workload, which should
warrant an amplified minimum level of staffing (Demers et al., 2007).   
Minimum-staffing technique.Minimum staffing technique demands that the
commanding staff and police supervisors estimate an adequate number of officers
on patrol who must be deployed to provide a sufficient protection level and
sustain officer safety (Demers, Palmer, and Griffiths 2007; Orrick, 2008). Kotsur
(2006) and the National Sheriff’s Association (2007) claim that using minimum
staffing methodologies is a common endeavor that is often reinforced via
organizational practice, policy, and bargaining agreements. Two major motives that
a jurisdiction might use to implement minimum staffing tactic. Firstly, the
policymakers in the community argue that there are a smallest number of police
officers needed to maintain public safety. In most cases, this applies to small
communities in which there are few demands generated from the citizens for
police services while the residents presume a certain least number of police
officers that ought to be on duty at any given moment. For instance, Mrozinski
(2010) ascertains that in some communities a minimum number cognizant of the
officers on duty is established by ordinance.  

            Due to the demerits outlined, the the International
Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP, 2004) has discouraged the usage police
population rates to establish the staffing needs. Furthermore, ratios like
officers per 1000 population are not appropriate to be fundamental when making
staffing decisions, defining the patrol personnel allocation, and deployment
demands (IACP, 2004). In particular, patrol allocation and deployment needs are
complex and demand for consideration of varied extensive factors, sizable
bodies that are reliable, and current information.  

As evidenced
by Coleman (2010), the per capita method does not consider environmental
variations among the jurisdictions, service area zones, physical obstacles or
weather patterns when establishing the staffing levels. Moreover, it does not
cover the non-crime associated activities and functions executed by police
personnel as economic features or community demographics dictate. As indicated
in table 2, communities differ greatly in line with the rates of police
officers cognizant of the officer rate, population, crime rate and officers in
six jurisdictions in Michigan having a populace of between 100,000 to 200,000 (Denmon
& Dettmansperger, 2009).   


Adams, Baer,
Denmon, and Dettmansperger (2009), Coleman (2010), Glendale Police Department
(2009), and Coleman (2010) contend that agencies, which utilize per-capita
technique, might risk biases when determining policing needs. Several factors
account for the biased determination of police needs including the lack of an
accepted benchmarking requirement for optimal staffing rate. However, there are
significant variations in line with police rates based on region, community
size, and agency type and structure. As denoted in table 1, there are widely
fluctuating rates by population, region, selected large jurisdictions, and
populaces of jurisdictions.  

            According to Edwards (2011), per-capita method has
numerous advantages including methodological simplicity together with the ease
of interpreting the results. Notably, the populace information needed to
calculate this respective metric like census estimates and figures are
regularly update and readily available. Besides, the per capita techniques that
control for the varied factors like crime rates have the potential to permit
varied communities to make comparisons between peer organizations and
themselves (Edwards, 2011). However, this methodology looks into the quantity
of the officers needed rather than how they spend their times, quality of the
results, conditions, community conditions, and expectations. Further, the
method fails to outline the aspect of deployment of these officers.

Per-capita. Several police organizations use residential
populaces to give an estimate of the total police officers required by a
community (Orrick, 2008). Ideally, Orrick (2008) contends that the per-capita
technique demands that the agency determines the optimal number of police
officers needed per individual and then then computing the officers required
for that particular the population in a given jurisdiction. Determining an
actual number of officers that are needed to man a certain population, the
optimal officer rating, agencies need to establish comparisons cognizant of the
rate to the peer organizations or other local jurisdictions. Though determining
the justification or historical approach regarding per-capita procedure is
difficult, it is explicit that significant variations are evident among police
departments (Orrick, 2008).   

Approaches used in police staffing.

 Although helpful when illustrating staffing
issues, Wilson, Rostker, and fan (2010) connote that the bucket analogy does
not account for the massive complexities evinced in police staffing. For
instance, several local societies have implemented stop-gap measures including
layoffs, hiring freezes, furloughs, and retaining unfilled vacancies, all which
impact on staffing cohorts with long-term repercussions on strategic plans and
management of personnel such as employment, retention, and career progression,
provision of training, productivity, supervision, and morale. Indeed, the
challenges facing recruitment and retention among the local agencies have
become complicated affecting delivery of services and administration of

            To demonstrate the recruitment
landscape faced by various police agencies, together with the challenges
experienced in planning for personnel and demand for novel officers, Wilson,
Erin, Scheer, and Grammich (2011) propose the “bucket” allegory, which is
represented by figure 2. In their analogy, Wilson, Erin, Scheer, and Grammich (2011)
affirm that the bucket indicates the demand for officers in the varied police
departments. In perspective, the supply of employees is evinced as flowing via
narrowing faucet, which is shrinking because of the shifting generational
predilections and a declining number of competent applicants. In essence, the
recession witnessed in 2008 completely shut off the flow for several agencies
who could not hire; hence, disrupting service delivery by augmented unmet
demand for the police as contended by McNichol, Oliff, and Johnson (2010). The
hole seen in the bucket is triggered by military call-ups, retirement, and
other attrition sources, which are expanding. Nonetheless, the need for more
police personnel is increasing due to the demand for the local forces to
address continue addressing, homeland security and community policing among
other emergent concerns like computer crime, immigration enforcement, school
violence, and social media implications. In fact, the end result is an
increased gap between the number of the total officers needed and their
respective allocation levels as well as the total requirement for these

denoted by Madensen and Eck (2006), staffing and recruitment in police
departments remains a continuous and complex challenge. The researchers note
that prior to the recession that occurred in the year 208, the police agencies
experienced difficulties when hiring officers, in this course, they responded
by utilizing numerous creative incentives to augment recruitment. Shortly
afterwards, the recession impacted on the agencies causing them to implement
furloughs, hiring freezes, benefit and salary cut-backs coupled with retirement
incentives. These problems spurred about 7272 applications to request for
support for at least 39,000 police officers in the sown positions (COPS, 2009).

Staffing models
for police across the US are often determined by utilizing one of the most
significant and common techniques McCabe (n.d). According to McCabe (n.d),
traditionally, police departments have implemented methods including
per-capital, crime trends, authorized or budgeted levels, minimum-manning
levels, and workload-based frameworks to ensure better staffing decisions. Indicatively,
due to professionalization in the 20th century, crime reduction
became the core function pertinent to the functions and operations of police;
in this regard, crime trends and levels were ascertained to be the benchmark to
staffing police. Ideally, the more the crime is evinced, the more there is
recruitment to have adequate officers to combat such behaviors (McCabe, n.d).

Police staffing. According to Reaves (2012), in September the year
2008, the federal organizations recruited close to120, 000 law enforcement
officers on full-time basis; these officers were authorized to carry forearms
and make arrests in the US. Ideally, this was an equivalent of having 40 police
officers against 100,000 citizens. As such, the number of officers at the
federal level in America augmented by nearly 15% representing 15,000 from 2004
through 2008 (Reaves, 2012). In addition, Reaves (2012) ascertains that the
federal organizations recruited about 1,600 officers in 2008, particularly in
Puerto Rico. Notably, the US has nearly 45,000 depicting 37% of the total
federal police officers; this group is response for enforcement and criminal
investigation duties. Further, the police patrol and response unit is the
second biggest function category having approximately 28, 000 officers. The
custom and migrations inspection is third with18, 000 individuals, which
represented 15%. Those that perform detention and correction-related activities
represent about 14% of the police officers, 17,000. Notably, Reaves (2012)
denotes that those officers that performed protection and security or
court-related operations were indicated 5% each.

2.2 Police Staffing and the
Approaches Used

Staffing the various
police units, in the recent years has become a sophisticated task not only in
the US but also across the world (Wilson & Weiss, 2014). According to
Wilson and Weiss (2014), both the demand for and supply of police officers that
are qualified are changing along augmenting attrition, declining resources, and
increased responsibilities for law-enforcement. Although more attention is
given to retention and recruitment, agencies often overlook the basic question
regarding the number of police officers required by particular agencies. In
their article, Wilson and Weiss (2014) indicate that police agencies implement
varied approaches to determine the requirements for staffing allocation.
According to these researchers, several techniques to determine staffing
allocations incorporate minimum staffing, per-capita, workload-based
techniques, and authorized level methods. Accordingly, Wilson and Weiss (2014)
conducted a literature review for secondary information and interviews for
primary data geared towards establishing and assessing the extant experiences
and trends in staffing allocation. The interviews were undertaken among
practitioners drawn from 20 varied agencies in America and a national focus
group, which included 21 staffing professionals (Wilson & Weiss, 2014). The
article also examined the weaknesses and strengths pertinent to alternative
techniques to determine staffing needs and to manage demand for workload while,
at the same time, minimizing usage of sworn officers. They concluded that
effective and efficient approaches consider performance and workload when

The US has
three main information resources, which collect statistics regarding the
employment status of law enforcement officers together with other relevant evidence
that is unique to every collection. For instance, the U.S Census Bureau, the
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), and FBI information gathering programs have
varied purposes, respondent universes, data definitions, and information
collection approaches (Banks, Hendrix, Hickman, & Kycklhahn, 2016).
According to the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented
Policing Services (OCPS) (2009), in America, every jurisdiction that is served
by nearly 18,000 local and state law implementation agencies regulate the
number of non-sworn and sworn police officers that it needs and can afford to
recruit, train, equip, and deploy. In essence, it is the obligation of every
agency to find and recruit qualified employees. In perspective, agencies
dealing with law enforcement in the US have recruited at least a million
individuals. For instance, BJS affirms that the local and state law agencies
have employed close to 730,000 and 345,000 sworn and civilian workers
respectively while the federal law organizations established outside armed
forces have recruited about 105,000 sworn employees (COPS, 2009).