2.4Workload-based approach.It is a comprehensive technique aimed at establishing an appropriate stafflevels consider the actual workload of police. Approaches founded on workloadtechniques garner their staffing indicators from the conception of servicedemand.
The respective approach is differentiated by prerequisite tosystematically determine and analyze staffing needs founded on demand foractual workload while, at the same time, accounting other features andcharacteristics of the agency and service-style preferences. Further, workloadanalysis is method that can be applied throughout the various levels for variedfunctions and within the entire police departments. The certified level can be showcased as artificialbenchmark regarding the need, which creates a misperception in policeleadership.
Community and line staff that an agency is overworked andunderstaffed when an actual number of staff do not match a ratified number ofofficers (Baker & Harmon, 2006). In addition, unless the staffs in theagency above the warranted level, selection, fluctuations, training, andattrition might lead to actual levels of staffing to fall below the recognizedlevels. Indicatively, Wilson, Rostker, and Fan (2010), ascertain that municipalpolice organizations with more than 300 affirmed officers are averagely 5%below the recognized sworn level. Since the ratified level is a derivativearrived at independently of the workload, agencies might meet the demands ofthe workforce, which have fewer officers when compared to the authorizedlevels. Shane (2010) also avows that the perception of understaffing resultswhen personnel bemoans the departments that operate below the suggested levelsand can diminish productivity and morale. Afterwards, this makes the communitylook like it does sufficiently fund the safety of the public. The workload-based methodology approximatesfuture needs in staffing through modelling the service level regarding thecurrent activities (Orrick, 2008; Keycare Strategy Operations Technology,2010).
Further, Glendale Police Department (2009), Orrick (2008), and Shane(2007) denote that undertaking an analysis on workload can help whendetermining a need for extra resources or using the extant assets in terms oflocation and time, evaluating group and individual performance together withproductivity, and then detecting the tendencies in workload, which might depictthe changing levels of activities and their respective conditions. 2.2.
2.3 Authorizedlevel method. In thisrespective technique, the police agencies use budgetary allocations todetermine the number of personnel who might be allocated (Wilson et al, 2011).Even though the accredited level can be established via formal staffingassessments, it is driven by the amount of resources available coupled with thepolitical decision-making. Ideally, the sanctioned levels do not reflectidentifiable conditions like the demand for the services, efficiency analyses,and community expectations; instead, they indicate incremental budgetaryprocess. In this regard, it is often challenging to determine the meaning ofauthorized levels; for instance, in the year 2009, the Chicago PoliceDepartment concurrently provided a reduced hiring of novel officers and aretirement plan.
In so doing, the year 2009 experienced inadequacy ofapproximately 700 officers, a mark that was below the expected level, 13500officers. Additionally, at least 1,000 officers were unavailable on a dailybasis either because of limited capacity of leave. In essence, the Fox News(2009) depicted that the department was operating approximately 2,000 personnelbelow the required levels.According toNew Jersey Division of Local Government Services (2009), Shane (2007), Demerset al. (2007), and Orrick (2008), the are no objective principles that havebeen highlighted to follow when establishing the minimum level in policestaffing. The researchers ascertain that the staffing agencies might take intoaccount the call load, population, and crime rate among other variations todetermine minimum level of staffing. However, other agencies can establish theminimum level through perceived need minus focusing on the factual basis ofofficers present, workload, response time, distance travelled, immediateavailability, shifts of schedules, and the performance criteria (Shane, 2007).In so doing, the method might result in deployment of either many officers whenthe work is less or few personnel when the work is high.
To subvert such an impedimentminimum levels are often increased than the warranted number by regarding theorganizational workload. On the contrary, even at the time when minimumstaffing is not reliant on the workload, it is common to find instances wherethe officers indicate an augmented organizational workload, which shouldwarrant an amplified minimum level of staffing (Demers et al., 2007). 184.108.40.206Minimum-staffing technique.
Minimum staffing technique demands that thecommanding staff and police supervisors estimate an adequate number of officerson patrol who must be deployed to provide a sufficient protection level andsustain officer safety (Demers, Palmer, and Griffiths 2007; Orrick, 2008). Kotsur(2006) and the National Sheriff’s Association (2007) claim that using minimumstaffing methodologies is a common endeavor that is often reinforced viaorganizational practice, policy, and bargaining agreements. Two major motives thata jurisdiction might use to implement minimum staffing tactic. Firstly, thepolicymakers in the community argue that there are a smallest number of policeofficers needed to maintain public safety. In most cases, this applies to smallcommunities in which there are few demands generated from the citizens forpolice services while the residents presume a certain least number of policeofficers that ought to be on duty at any given moment. For instance, Mrozinski(2010) ascertains that in some communities a minimum number cognizant of theofficers on duty is established by ordinance. Due to the demerits outlined, the the InternationalAssociation of Chiefs of Police (IACP, 2004) has discouraged the usage policepopulation rates to establish the staffing needs.
Furthermore, ratios likeofficers per 1000 population are not appropriate to be fundamental when makingstaffing decisions, defining the patrol personnel allocation, and deploymentdemands (IACP, 2004). In particular, patrol allocation and deployment needs arecomplex and demand for consideration of varied extensive factors, sizablebodies that are reliable, and current information. As evidencedby Coleman (2010), the per capita method does not consider environmentalvariations among the jurisdictions, service area zones, physical obstacles orweather patterns when establishing the staffing levels. Moreover, it does notcover the non-crime associated activities and functions executed by policepersonnel as economic features or community demographics dictate. As indicatedin table 2, communities differ greatly in line with the rates of policeofficers cognizant of the officer rate, population, crime rate and officers insix jurisdictions in Michigan having a populace of between 100,000 to 200,000 (Denmon& Dettmansperger, 2009). Adams, Baer,Denmon, and Dettmansperger (2009), Coleman (2010), Glendale Police Department(2009), and Coleman (2010) contend that agencies, which utilize per-capitatechnique, might risk biases when determining policing needs. Several factorsaccount for the biased determination of police needs including the lack of anaccepted benchmarking requirement for optimal staffing rate.
However, there aresignificant variations in line with police rates based on region, communitysize, and agency type and structure. As denoted in table 1, there are widelyfluctuating rates by population, region, selected large jurisdictions, andpopulaces of jurisdictions. According to Edwards (2011), per-capita method hasnumerous advantages including methodological simplicity together with the easeof interpreting the results.
Notably, the populace information needed tocalculate this respective metric like census estimates and figures areregularly update and readily available. Besides, the per capita techniques thatcontrol for the varied factors like crime rates have the potential to permitvaried communities to make comparisons between peer organizations andthemselves (Edwards, 2011). However, this methodology looks into the quantityof the officers needed rather than how they spend their times, quality of theresults, conditions, community conditions, and expectations. Further, themethod fails to outline the aspect of deployment of these officers. 2.2.
2.1Per-capita. Several police organizations use residentialpopulaces to give an estimate of the total police officers required by acommunity (Orrick, 2008). Ideally, Orrick (2008) contends that the per-capitatechnique demands that the agency determines the optimal number of policeofficers needed per individual and then then computing the officers requiredfor that particular the population in a given jurisdiction. Determining anactual number of officers that are needed to man a certain population, theoptimal officer rating, agencies need to establish comparisons cognizant of therate to the peer organizations or other local jurisdictions.
Though determiningthe justification or historical approach regarding per-capita procedure isdifficult, it is explicit that significant variations are evident among policedepartments (Orrick, 2008). 2.2.2Approaches used in police staffing. Although helpful when illustrating staffingissues, Wilson, Rostker, and fan (2010) connote that the bucket analogy doesnot account for the massive complexities evinced in police staffing. Forinstance, several local societies have implemented stop-gap measures includinglayoffs, hiring freezes, furloughs, and retaining unfilled vacancies, all whichimpact on staffing cohorts with long-term repercussions on strategic plans andmanagement of personnel such as employment, retention, and career progression,provision of training, productivity, supervision, and morale. Indeed, thechallenges facing recruitment and retention among the local agencies havebecome complicated affecting delivery of services and administration ofpersonnel.
To demonstrate the recruitmentlandscape faced by various police agencies, together with the challengesexperienced in planning for personnel and demand for novel officers, Wilson,Erin, Scheer, and Grammich (2011) propose the “bucket” allegory, which isrepresented by figure 2. In their analogy, Wilson, Erin, Scheer, and Grammich (2011)affirm that the bucket indicates the demand for officers in the varied policedepartments. In perspective, the supply of employees is evinced as flowing vianarrowing faucet, which is shrinking because of the shifting generationalpredilections and a declining number of competent applicants. In essence, therecession witnessed in 2008 completely shut off the flow for several agencieswho could not hire; hence, disrupting service delivery by augmented unmetdemand for the police as contended by McNichol, Oliff, and Johnson (2010). Thehole seen in the bucket is triggered by military call-ups, retirement, andother attrition sources, which are expanding.
Nonetheless, the need for morepolice personnel is increasing due to the demand for the local forces toaddress continue addressing, homeland security and community policing amongother emergent concerns like computer crime, immigration enforcement, schoolviolence, and social media implications. In fact, the end result is anincreased gap between the number of the total officers needed and theirrespective allocation levels as well as the total requirement for theseofficers. Asdenoted by Madensen and Eck (2006), staffing and recruitment in policedepartments remains a continuous and complex challenge. The researchers notethat prior to the recession that occurred in the year 208, the police agenciesexperienced difficulties when hiring officers, in this course, they respondedby utilizing numerous creative incentives to augment recruitment. Shortlyafterwards, the recession impacted on the agencies causing them to implementfurloughs, hiring freezes, benefit and salary cut-backs coupled with retirementincentives. These problems spurred about 7272 applications to request forsupport for at least 39,000 police officers in the sown positions (COPS, 2009).Staffing modelsfor police across the US are often determined by utilizing one of the mostsignificant and common techniques McCabe (n.d).
According to McCabe (n.d),traditionally, police departments have implemented methods includingper-capital, crime trends, authorized or budgeted levels, minimum-manninglevels, and workload-based frameworks to ensure better staffing decisions. Indicatively,due to professionalization in the 20th century, crime reductionbecame the core function pertinent to the functions and operations of police;in this regard, crime trends and levels were ascertained to be the benchmark tostaffing police. Ideally, the more the crime is evinced, the more there isrecruitment to have adequate officers to combat such behaviors (McCabe, n.d). 2.2.
1Police staffing. According to Reaves (2012), in September the year2008, the federal organizations recruited close to120, 000 law enforcementofficers on full-time basis; these officers were authorized to carry forearmsand make arrests in the US. Ideally, this was an equivalent of having 40 policeofficers against 100,000 citizens. As such, the number of officers at thefederal level in America augmented by nearly 15% representing 15,000 from 2004through 2008 (Reaves, 2012). In addition, Reaves (2012) ascertains that thefederal organizations recruited about 1,600 officers in 2008, particularly inPuerto Rico. Notably, the US has nearly 45,000 depicting 37% of the totalfederal police officers; this group is response for enforcement and criminalinvestigation duties. Further, the police patrol and response unit is thesecond biggest function category having approximately 28, 000 officers.
Thecustom and migrations inspection is third with18, 000 individuals, whichrepresented 15%. Those that perform detention and correction-related activitiesrepresent about 14% of the police officers, 17,000. Notably, Reaves (2012)denotes that those officers that performed protection and security orcourt-related operations were indicated 5% each.2.2 Police Staffing and theApproaches UsedStaffing the variouspolice units, in the recent years has become a sophisticated task not only inthe US but also across the world (Wilson & Weiss, 2014). According toWilson and Weiss (2014), both the demand for and supply of police officers thatare qualified are changing along augmenting attrition, declining resources, andincreased responsibilities for law-enforcement. Although more attention isgiven to retention and recruitment, agencies often overlook the basic questionregarding the number of police officers required by particular agencies.
Intheir article, Wilson and Weiss (2014) indicate that police agencies implementvaried approaches to determine the requirements for staffing allocation.According to these researchers, several techniques to determine staffingallocations incorporate minimum staffing, per-capita, workload-basedtechniques, and authorized level methods. Accordingly, Wilson and Weiss (2014)conducted a literature review for secondary information and interviews forprimary data geared towards establishing and assessing the extant experiencesand trends in staffing allocation.
The interviews were undertaken amongpractitioners drawn from 20 varied agencies in America and a national focusgroup, which included 21 staffing professionals (Wilson & Weiss, 2014). Thearticle also examined the weaknesses and strengths pertinent to alternativetechniques to determine staffing needs and to manage demand for workload while,at the same time, minimizing usage of sworn officers. They concluded thateffective and efficient approaches consider performance and workload whenstaffing.The US hasthree main information resources, which collect statistics regarding theemployment status of law enforcement officers together with other relevant evidencethat is unique to every collection. For instance, the U.S Census Bureau, theBureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), and FBI information gathering programs havevaried purposes, respondent universes, data definitions, and informationcollection approaches (Banks, Hendrix, Hickman, & Kycklhahn, 2016).
According to the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community OrientedPolicing Services (OCPS) (2009), in America, every jurisdiction that is servedby nearly 18,000 local and state law implementation agencies regulate thenumber of non-sworn and sworn police officers that it needs and can afford torecruit, train, equip, and deploy. In essence, it is the obligation of everyagency to find and recruit qualified employees.
In perspective, agenciesdealing with law enforcement in the US have recruited at least a millionindividuals. For instance, BJS affirms that the local and state law agencieshave employed close to 730,000 and 345,000 sworn and civilian workersrespectively while the federal law organizations established outside armedforces have recruited about 105,000 sworn employees (COPS, 2009).