2.5.2 networks are very exclusive social networking environments.

   2.5.2 Benefits to the Institution   Institution are one of the main target who get benefits from the alumni information system. Some of the main benefits are:   ·       Fundraising: Institution can organize events for the alumni, which in turn act as fund raising activities for the universities.   ·       Marketing: Institution whose alumni are reputed and notable can promote the brand of the university through highlighting their affiliation with the noted individual;   ·       Improving standards: Departments with in a institution can come along with the alumni and discuss on the new emerging technologies in the real world and make necessary changes to curriculum.

Consequently, increasing the quality of education obtained by the students.     2.5.3 Benefits to the Alumni   In addition to the university, the alumni systems also prove to be advantageous for the alumni. Each alumnus is likely to have a unique life experience and alumni systems provide an ideal place for them to share their stories and life experiences. It can also facilitate re-unions between old friends and contribute to their relaxation and health. Alumni who turned into entrepreneurs may benefit by recruiting fresh graduates from their home institution, a place whose educational standards they trust.

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Some of the advantages include:   ·       Exclusive networking: Alumni networks are very exclusive social networking environments. These are very good platforms for alumni to meet their class mates and fellow students and can maintain continual contact with them in future.   ·       Charitable giving or donation: The use of the mobile android application creates a medium for the alumni to easily donate to fundraising or pay their dues.   ·       Special benefits: Institution provide s special benefits for their alumni, like providing game tickets, university email, special parking permissions etc.     Application of Emerged Technologies   2.2 Mobile Devices   A mobile device is a general term for any type of handheld computer (GCF Learn Free, 2017). A mobile device has a display screen with small numeric or alphanumeric keyboard or touchscreen which provides a virtual keyboard with buttons on – screen.

Over the years, there has been rapid technological advancement, we see new wave of more powerful mobile devices almost every season; This has led to the vast number of devices on the market, including but not limited to:   ·       Tablet Computers ·       Mobile Phones ·       Head – mounted displays ·       Smart watches ·       Handheld game consoles   Handheld devices have become ruggedized for use in mobile field management. Uses include digitizing notes, sending and receiving invoices, asset management, recording signatures, managing parts, and scanning barcodes (Wikipedia, 2017). Developments in mobile collaboration systems , in 2009, enables the use of handheld devices that combine video, audio and on – screen drawing capabilities to enable multi – party conferencing in real – time, independent of location (Renee, 2009) . Handheld computers are available in a variety of form factors, including smartphones on the low end, hand held PDAs, Ultra – Mobile PCs and Tablet PCs (Palm OS, WebOS) (Mellow, 2005).

Users can watch television through majority of mobile devices. Mobile television receivers have existed since the 1960s, and in the 21st century mobile phone providers began making television available on cellular phones (Lotz, 2007) . Recently mobile devices now have the ability to synchronize with cloud servers and share almost anything with another device no matter the distance and at great speed. In the medical field, mobile devices have become a major access point to clinical information such as drugs, treatment and even medical calculation (Boruff & Storie, 2014) . Due to the popularity of mobile money transactions, the emergence of technology has made mobile transactions much mpore easier. One can comfortably sit at home and make payments through the use of an application software through a secure link like Express Pay. The other e-payment integrations available  in Ghana are namely Hubtel, SlydePay, MobiCollect and others.

    2.2.2 Mobile Phone Penetration Rate   Mobile phone penetration rate refers to the number of active mobile phone users within a specific population. Sixty seven per cent of Africa’s population, estimated to be about 1.

13 billion, had mobile phones in 2015 (Adepetun, 2015). The proliferation of mobile phones and mobile phone networks, in the past few years, has transformed communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Africans were given the opportunity to skip the landline stage of development and move to the digital age.

Cell phone ownership in 2002 was very low (one-in-ten), but since then, it has grown exponentially. Cell phones are now as popular in Africa as it is in the United States of America. As seen in figure 2.1, between the period of 2002 and 2014, Africa has experienced much more mobile penetration than the United States of America. Also by the year 2014 many African countries such as Ghana and South Africa had equal or nearly equal percentage in adult cell phone ownership.

Figure 2. Cell Phone Ownership Surges in Africa. Source: pewglobal.org   These are among the main findings of a Pew Research Center survey in seven sub-Saharan African nations. The survey was conducted April 11 to June 5, 2014, among 7,052 respondents in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. All interviews were face-to-face. Comparison figures for the U.S.

are from 2014 Pew Research Center surveys. According to the Pew Research Center’s “Cell Phones in Africa: Communication Lifeline” report, mobile phone penetration in Africa is expected to increase from 52% in 2012 to 79% in 2020. With the challenges on the continent, such as limited infrastructure, mobile phones are devices that have proven to be effective in reaching people in spite of such challenges.       2.

2.4 Quick Response Code (QR Code) for Attendance Tracking   QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) were first utilized as a part of 1994 by Denso Wave, a Toyota backup organization in Japan. QR codes gave a speedy and helpful way to deal with track vehicles amid assembling process at car industry (Walker, 2011). After its effective execution at Denso Wave, different enterprises endeavoured to receive this innovation as well.

Denso Wave has protected the QR code, yet it’s open for overall utilize. In 2011 the QR code wound up noticeably business for the first run through media communications industry. Today the QR code has increased real business fame because of versatile innovation. It has gained major commercial popularity due to mobile devices. With the rise of mobile technology, it was the best and the quickest medium for this mesmerizing technology to gain success (Anonyms, 2010). The traditional and normal way of taking attendance is by using pen and paper manually which is seemed as unproductive, repetitive and tedious processes. This mode of taking attendance will incur time lost instead of being productive especially looking at the population of the alumni.

As new technology rapidly evolves, there are various ways of capturing individuals’ attendances.   Figure 3. QR code scan in progress using a mobile device. Source: Fast technology group   As show above, a QR code is read by an imaging device, such as a mobile phone camera, and formatted algorithmically by underlying software Reed – Solomon error correction until the image can be appropriately interpreted. This software error detection and error correction is widely used because it can performed quickly and efficiently. It allows correct reading even the bar code is damaged a lot. Data is then extracted from patterns present in both horizontal and vertical components of the image.

This extracted data, based on what is behind the encrypted image can now be sent to the server for computational purposes.     5.0 Existing Systems.   Harvard Alumni Portal: Front page of this portal shows the features like login tab so that the alumnus can login easily, ways to connect for connecting the junior and the pass out students, make gift for various occasions like birthdays or anything else. With that Harvard provides Features News for surrounding information’s, Lecture details which describes the schedule, events and the Notice are displayed on home page itself with the present event. Also gives the Donor Initiative Chance for the scenario when the alumni student he/she feels that they can help the college in terms of donation so that will be  possible with this. Apart from all this we have observe the unique feature that is it provides the clubbed video on the home page and this thing makes the whole portal very much attractive.   IIT Kanpur: IIT has Gallery with many images, Lectures details with specific day and time; contacts which show whom all are connected with this portal, woman alumni convention as separate for the woman only on the Home page.

And Features are Gallery present on the home page; visit for guide allocations is given so that the junior student can get the solution or the advice for their difficulties. And Notice with highlighted form is shown for better visualization. Also gives the Donor Initiative Chance. And IIT KANPUR shows information events about present on every page where the current events are highlighted also there is a separate women alumni convention and that is the unique feature.   Alumni Princeton University: This portal has different things in their front page like Calendar for the current and the incoming occasions. This portal is provides the features that is same as the IIT KANPUR like Gallery present on the home page, visit for guide allocations is given so that the junior student can get the solution or the advice for their difficulties. But the different thing is that this portal provides the scholar ship in terms of donor initiative for the collage requirement purpose.

Providing the unique feature like the alumnus are categorized on the basis of regions communities of networks so that the students who belongs to the same area will get listed together.   ITMB Alumni Association: In the home page this portal shows the search tab for searching the alumni student whether he/she is connected in the portal or not provides the similar features like all portals Harvard Alumni Portal, IIT Kanpur, Alumni Princeton University. The notice is present in the highlighted form not only for the better visualization but also for making the portal active.

Also provided Donor initiative for college. And the unique feature which makes ITMB Alumni Association more unique is the search tab which is shown on every page.   UCLA Alumni Portal: The UCLA ALUMNI PORTAL’s home page layout is very much attractive, shows the similar features like all the portal which we have discussed yet. But unfortunately there is no notice section because of that the portal not shows any surrounding information.

And also the donor initiative is present in the form of scholarship.     Weakness and Limitations Over all we found shortcoming that the Junior applicant cannot communicate with the Alumni that makes the portal complicated. And also the conservation is hidden or not displayed from the other student who all is connected with that particular portal