2.6 Student-Teacher RelationshipStudent-teacher relationship is one of the factors that can contribute to students’ disaffection or engagement during English lesson. According to Furrer, Skinner, & Pitzer (2014), the idea of poor quality of student-teacher relationships in the classroom is not only exhausting on disaffected students but also afflicting stress for teachers. Hence, poor quality of student-teacher relationship can expedite students’ disaffection in language learning. In contrast, students are drawn to highly immediate teachers because those behaviours facilitate a sense of liking and approachable instead of avoidance (Mazer, 2012). Insterestingly, one study by Kavenagh, Freeman, & Ainley (2012) revealed that male students felt that they were most likely being neglected by their teachers during the lesson. Thus, students’ gender may influence engagement or disaffection during the on-going lesson depending how they perceive the quality of student-teacher relationship.2.7 Gender Differences in Language LearningThere is a relatively small body of literature that is concerned with the factors contributing to engagement and disaffection which focusing on gender differences in ESL learning. Rostami, Hejazi, & Lavasani (2011) notes that there’s no significant difference in proficiency goal, mastery goals between male and female students that highlight the cognitive factor in engagement or disaffection in language learning. However, Varol & Yilmaz, (2010) points out that female students outperformed the male students in making attempts to discover new things during classroom activities. One study showed that low level of academic motivation among students promote negative classroom behaviour that contribute to disaffection especially among male students, however, unmotivated female students were still able to regulate their classroom behaviour (Bugler, McGeown, & Clair-Thompson, 2012). Another study on gender diference in language learning showed that female students were quicker reader and more interested in reading activities than male students (Xiong, 2010). Students’ genders should be taken into consideration in which can influence their engagement and disaffection during English lesson.2.8 ConclusionThis chapter has looked into theoretical background, conceptual framework, and reviews of the past studies related to engagement and disaffection among students during English lesson. The next chapter describes the procedures and methods used to conduct this study.