the curved sides that are cut off the logs to form four flat surfaces
How are logs evaluated?
lasers, computers or people called sawyers evaluated the logs for desired lumber
How are individual boards created?
by varying the spacing of cuts; other saws square off the edges and cut boards to length
How is lumber cut?
cut into standard thicknesses and different widths and lengths
What are by-products?
bark, sawdust, slabs, wood chips; slabs and chips produce paper; any excess is fuel
What is grading?
hardwood is sorted appearance and beauty; defects like knots, splits, and decay reduces the value; sawing process removes some, but not all of these defects
Pa has some of the most ____ forests in the US.
What makes forests valuable?
wood products; place for wildlife; clean air; peace and quiet; beauty and recreation
Forests are renewable resources.
forests provide continuous benefits
How many people own forests in PA?
over half a million (500,000)
Why are trees harvested?
better for wildlife; more light in the forest floor; more room for trees to grow; money
How is a harvest planned?
the focus is on the trees that remain rather than those that are to be cut; the remaining trees and seedlings will benefit the forest for years to come so it is important to choose them well
Why do trees grow bigger after a harvest?
lessens competition for soil nutrients and sunlight; trees grow bigger and faster when other trees do not crowd them; crown size increases (tree top)and allows more photosynthesis, producing more sugars to grow more quickly
Do trees get sick?
yes; harvesting is the best way to prevent insects and diseases from spreading to healthy trees
What do foresters do?
help landowners make decsions about trees; measure trees for volume, quality and growth rate; create forest management plans; observe trees, soil, wildlife and streams
What safety equipment is used by lumberers?
hard hats, eye and ear protection, bright safety jacket, gloves, safety chaps, safety shoes,
What is in a forester’s management plan?
what trees to harvest to keep forest healthy; how harvests should happen; minimizes negative effects. the forester marks the trees with paint to show the logger which ones to cut