3.1-3.1-1 Mobility and its execution process for visually impaired and blind peopleThe results of empirical studies (Ungar 2004) of mobility and its execution process for visually impaired and blind people indicates differentiation between mobility in near-space and mobility in far-space. 1. Mobility in near-spaceUngar conducted experiments, called “table-top”. The participants revealed mapping abilities for objects within arm’s reach. The results showed that body-centered mapping strategies of the congenitally or early blind. However, these strategies are less vigorous in more challenging tasks that involve extrapolation. External references were founded to be more successful in more complex tasks.2. Mobility in far-space.Ungar’s experiments were involved in a larger environment such as school grounds, offices or constructed layouts, and frequently with children of school age. One noticeable element of his findings was that the lack of visual experience does not block the gaining of spatial information” (Ungar, 2004). However, the study indicated that blind people are likely to apply body-centered rather than external referencing for recording their experiences of far-space. External referencing can be more frequent and successful for the more complex mobility tasks in far-spaces. He suggests more specialized mobility training in the use of all the senses from an early age and the use of tactile maps(Ungar 2004). 3.1-3.1-2 Locomotion process of blind and visually impaired peopleFigure 2. Brambring travel model (Brambring, 1985)According to Brambring travel model, there are two types of procedures at work for the locomotion of a blind and visually impaired people. One is about perception of objects and the other is about the process of orientation. Perception translated information from environment through any of their senses. Orientation is the understanding of broad position on the journey route. • Perception and obstacle detection. Detecting obstacles can be the perception of possibly dangerous objects early and it allows people to avoid. This is a principal precondition for assisted mobility. This is a perception in the near location of locomotor space. • Perception and the identification of landmarks.Blind and visually impaired people use various and different types of landmarks than sighted people for defining their location on their journey. Landmarks that blind and visually impaired people use include environmental clues, such as climbs and falls in the route and differentiation in the texture and pattern of the pavement, the occurrence of walls and hedges, changes of nearby objects like railings, sound landmarks, incorporating traffic sounds and traffic crossing alerts, as well as smell, flow of the air and temperature changes. From the intensity of smell and sounds, they also can perceive distance. Differences of individual perceptive abilities rather than differences in cognitive processes affects the identification of landmarks like people with sight. • Spatial orientation. This is an ability to maintain a position in the near-space. Spatial orientation includes the optimal position on a pathway and the capability to walk without turning from an anticipated route. • Geographic orientation.In contrast to spatial orientation, geographic orientation is in the far-space. It is the ability to define position in the geographical space of the whole journey. Geographical orientation is mainly about information and mobility strategy about how to get from place A to place B. Navigation can be associated with this activity(Brambring, 1985). `3.1-3.2 OrientationOrientation has been defined as the ability to locate oneself in one’s environment and determination of the position in relation to true north, to points on the compass, or to a specific place or object. Orientation is a process of using the remaining senses in determining one’s location and correlation to all other substantial objects in the environment. (Hill and Ponder 1976). Orientation relies on the interpretation of sensory information such visual, auditory, kinaesthetic (the relative positions different parts of the body), touchable, thermal, and/or olfactory. 3.1-3.3 NavigationNavigation is the process associated with moving from one place to another with mobility skills and spatial orientation in the environment. There are three methods of updating one’s location and orientation, based on kinematic order. (Loomis et al. 2001): Position-based navigation: External objects work as cues for the traveller’s location and orientation in the environmentVelocity-based navigation: External and internal objects work as cues for the traveller’s present location. For example, based on progress and speed from a recognized past location, a blind traveller can expect their arrival at their next position. Acceleration-based navigation: This involves the traveller’s understanding of location order and various accelerations to get information and change direction from their current point. ?These three methods imply that blind and visually-impaired people have a big disadvantage in navigating inexperienced paths. The lack of information results in their having less information about landmarks. (Loomis et al. 2001). 3.1- 4. Travel AidsCurrent travel aids have been developed for helping blind and visually-impaired travellers. Travel aids support these travellers by detecting objects in the physical environment, negotiating objects, going up and down stairways, entering and exiting buildings in addition to many other mobility tasks. Three widely-used conventional aids exist, and are described below:Human guide: One of the travel aids is a human guide. In this case, blind and visually-impaired people are fully supported by a person with sight. The human guides need a position slightly in front in order to ensure safety. At one time or another, most visually-impaired travellers use a human guide, either as a primary aid or a supplement to other aids. Long cane: Over the years, various forms of canes have been developed for specific user needs and desires. The long cane (also called the prescription cane or typhlo cane); is considered one of the most effective aids (Farmer 1980). It allows visually-impaired travellers to recognize obstacles or drop-offs in the path approximately 1 m in front of them. Information about the walking surface or texture can also be conveyed, while delivering proper lower-body protection. In the most common technique, the cane is extended and swung back and forth across the body in rhythm with the user’s steps (LaGrow and Weessies 1994). Dog guide: Trained dogs are used as travel aids by less than 10% of blind and visually-impaired people. The dog reacts to their commands for directions such as right, left and forward. The guide dog’s assignment is not to find the way or navigate, but to guide the person to avoid obstacles or to stop in front of them. People who use guide dogs must still know where they are heading and make decisions themselves about the proper time to begin a street crossing. 3.1- 5. Transportation for blind and visually impaired peopleTransportation is one of the principal elements for independence, productivity, and social involvement. Most blind or visually impaired people are not authorized to drive a motorized car owing to their vision loss. Therefore, people with visual impairment are more limited in their transport options and may have difficulty using current mobility systems. Public transportation services such as subways, trains, buses and distinctive paratransit are commonly the only options blind or visually impaired people have for traveling independently to institute, school, office, medical centers, and shopping malls. These transportation options support their mobility, yet at the same time reveal many different kinds of problems.3.1- 5.1. Public TransportationAccording to a survey of 55 visually impaired people, 85% of them have difficulty in finding public transportation and pick-up locations such as bus stops. Taking public transportation is challenging because spatial cues are intended for seeing travelers. Lack of information is one of the critical issues in public transportation. The information system in public transportation is not appropriately designed for blind people. Visual cues, such as direction signs at bus stops, bus numbers, street signs and maps of the station are mainly designed for sighted people. These visual cues, which are not intended for blind and visually impaired people, are the main obstacles to accessing and using public transportation (Golledge,1997).3.1- 5.2. Paratransit : Access ServiceParatransit is a special mini van or taxi service for improving the mobility and access to public transit for people with disabilities. Paratransit service has more flexibility than public transportation. It travels along undesignated routes and stops to pick up or discharge passengers according to their pick up location and destination in a service area. Access Service in Los Angeles is one of the paratransit services mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). It runs around Los Angeles and customers can use it by making a reservation one day ahead. This transit is beneficial for blind and visually impaired people. However, according to customer satisfaction surveys generated by the Fairfax Research Group for Access service, some customers complain about ride sharing resulting in longer trips, later drop-offs, and crowded vehicles, and customers want more flexibility to make, manage, and adjust their reservations (The Fairfax Research Group, 2012).3.1- 5.3. UberUber is an on-demand ride share service, which works with a mobile application. When a customer sets up a location and destination through the mobile application, the physically closest driver picks them up and drops them at their destination. Its on-demand service is beneficial for time management and its mobile application provides voice service for blind people. However, it requires that users have basic understanding of current technology. For seniors with vision disabilities, it is not easy to learn how to use smartphones and mobile applications, even if it provides voice service. Besides, according to Washington Post, a women in Virginia was refused Uber service because of her guide dog (Lori Aratani, 2016). Although Uber instructs drivers to take people with guide dogs in the backseat, some drivers do not follow the rule and just refuse them service.3.1- 6. Assistive Technology for blind and visually impaired peopleDiverse assistive system and design have been developed to use technology to assist people with blindness and visual impairment in the area of location. There have been quite a few efforts to utilize the available current technological advances in mobility assistive devices. Assistive technology and that more recently global positioning system and mobile telephone technology has begun to impact the development of viable navigation and orientation assistive technology.With the fast developments in contemporary technology, both in hardware and software have brought potential to provide smart aid for impaired people. Advances in wearable computing, voice recognition, wireless communication, GIS and GPS have made possible to address the blind and visually-impaired people and disabled navigation problem. Electronic Travel Aids designed and devised to help the blind people to navigate safely and independently. Assistive Technology are mainly focused on three types of environments outdoor, indoor and some mix of the previous ones. The research on outdoor environments mainly statements the problem of users positioning during micro-navigation and macro-navigation. Micro-navigation studies the delivery of information from the immediate physical environment, and macro-navigation explores the challenges of dealing with the distant environment. In both cases the use of global positioning systems (GPS) has shown to be quite useful in recognizing the user’s position. 3.1- 6.1. Advanced Technology for Indoor NavigationThe studies focused on indoor environments have proposed several advanced technologies and strategies to convey useful information to the user. Sonnenblick implemented a navigation system for indoor environments based on the use of infrared LEDs. Such LEDs must be strategically located in places used by the blind person to perform their activities (e.g., rooms and corridors), thus, acting as guides for them. The signal of these guiding LEDs is captured and interpreted by a special device, which transforms it into useful information to support the user’s movements. (Sonnenblick, 1998) Hub, Diepstraten and Ertl developed a system to determine the position of objects and individuals in an indoor environment. That solution involved the use of cameras to detect objects and direction sensors to recognize the direction in which the user is moving. (Hub and.. 2004). Guerrero presented an indoor navigation system that enables one to identify the position of a person and calculates the velocity and direction of his movements. Using this information, the system determines the user’s trajectory, locates possible obstacles in that route, and offers navigation information to the user. It is suitable to guide visually impaired people through an unknown built environment (Guerrero, 2012).3.1- 6.2. Technology for orientation trainingMany studies focus on developing technology for people with blindness and visual impairment to improve their communication and motilities. People with vision disabilities strongly need an education for traveling. Interpreting spatial cues is a basic element for orientation and mobility. They more rely on non-visual cues such as auditory signals for interacting with their surroundings. Orientation and mobility training is important to encourage children with sight impairments to locate themselves. (Martinez, Carolina. 1998). Engineers created training program for Children with vision impairment to improve their capability to locate. Sánchez, Jaime and Mauricio made a computer game program, AudioChile which is designed for improving blind children’s spatiality. This is 3D sound and 3D interactive environment for children with blindness or visual impairment. 3D sound works as spatial cues for orienting, avoiding obstructions, and defining the locations of diverse items in a virtual environment (Sánchez, Jaime and Mauricio 2006). 3.1- 6.3. Advanced Technology for drivingMost of them are not official approved to drive an automotive vehicle owing to their of vision. However, there is a study about car operating system for them to drive. The Robotics & Mechanisms Laboratory at Virginia Tech presented a prototype car for blind drivers. This model was funded by the National Federation of the Blind to develop a vehicle that a blind person can drive themselves. The Virginia Tech team altered a automation car to let drivers to use it only using touch, relying on guidance response with sensors in the car. The sensors in the front of the car function as human eyes and gather information about objects and the boundary lines of the road. Specially designed gloves transfer this information to the driver to operate. Vibrating the fingertips on both hands gives direction to turn left or right. A vibrating seat assists driver to maintain suitable speed: the placement and amount of the vibration allows the driver to speed up or slow down. An air puffing device next to the driver’s seat generates a map on their palms and fingertips to enable them to navigate the road. This innovative model helps a blind driver to drive car.