Finally, bacteria cells havebacterial mesosome which is an infolding part of the cell membrane thatincreases its surface area; this helps the cell to perform cellular respirationwith more efficiency. Bacteria cells also containbacterial ribosomes which are made up of over 50 proteins, as well as RNA, andare the site of protein synthesis. This is important because protein is neededto direct chemical processes and to repair cell damage.
Gram-negative bacteria (thathave a thin cell wall of sugars and amino acids which is surrounded by a thickplasma membrane) have structures called Pili (plural of pilus) which arehollow, hair-like structures which are spread around the outside of the celland allow the bacteria to latch on to other cells.The cytoplasm is a fluid wherethe functions for cell growth, replication and metabolism. Unlike plant cells,bacteria cells do not contain chloroplasts or mitochondria.The plasma membrane controlsthe intake and output of chemicals, water, and cell waste, as well as being thesite for the transport of molecules into the cell. Most bacteria have a semi-rigidcell wall that is made of complex sugars and amino acids, and it provides thebacteria with structural support, which maintains cell shape and prevents Lysis(bursting from osmotic pressure), by surrounding it with a strong, firmstructure.
The bacteria cell wall is usually a target for antibiotic treatment.Some bacteria cells have an outer capsule which acts as a second cell wall foradded protection from the host’s immune system.Bacteria do not have a nucleusbut they do have a Nucleoid which is an area in the cytoplasm that contains oneof the two types of DNA, arranged in singular strands: chromosomal DNA, whichcarries the majority of the genetic information of the bacteria. The Plasmid isthe area in the cytoplasm where singular strands of plasmid DNA are found, andthis carries extra information and extra beneficial genes.The basic structure of a bacteriacell is made up of a cell wall, a plasma membrane and a cytoplasm, as well asflagellum in some bacteria which is a hair-like appendage that helps thebacteria cell it to transport itself.