Linear Editing

During editing you select the best of your shots to keep and discard the rest. You also rearrange the shots to place them in an order that best helps tell the story. Editing is as much an art as a skill. For now, we’ll begin to focus on the skill part. There are two general ways to edit videotape – linear editing and nonlinear editing. This section will take a very brief look at linear editing. A linear system that you are likely familiar with is an audiocassette (remember those, in the pre-CD days?).

If you want to listen to the second song on the cassette, you must first either listen to the first song or fast-forward past it; you can’t just jump to the second song.Linear video editing, in its most extremely simple form, can be accomplished by dubbing (copying) the desired shots directly from the camera to a VTR (video tape recorder). If the order in which you filmed the scenes (e.g. A – B – C) is not the same order as they should appear in the final product (B – A-C), you simply dub the scenes in the order that they should appear.

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 Special linear editing machines make the job easier and allow you to add special effects such as titles and transitions. A transition occurs when one shot switches to another shot – we’ll discuss transitions in a bit more detail later.If you later change your mind about the order in which you want the scenes to appear (B – C – A) or you want to change the length of each shot you’ve got trouble. With linear editing there is no simple way to go back and switch the order or change the length of a scene you’ve already copied to tape. Time to start over again or at least at the point that changes need to be made.Nonlinear EditingNonlinear editing (NLE) works much more like a computer word processor. Video footage is sent to the computer and stored in digital format. Video clips can easily be shuffled around by dragging and dropping.

The length of the shot can easily be shortened or lengthened without affecting the rest of the clips. Transitions and titling are easily accomplished. Most, if not all, of the video editing work you will be doing during this course will be on a nonlinear editing system. There are many different NLE systems available, such as Pinnacle Studio, Adobe Premiere, iMovie, or Avid Xpress. Systems designed for the home user are generally very simple to learn.In this section we will look at some of the key features of a typical NLE system. You will then use the user guide and/or tutorials that came with the system used at your school to learn the specific details of the software. Some schools may have more complex systems that will require a steeper learning curve (such as Adobe Premiere or Avid Xpress).

Your supervising teacher may be able to help get you started. Let me know if you are having trouble learning the software.The first step is to transfer the video to the computer. To be able to do this, your computer will need a video capture card, which will be inside your computer.

You’ll need some cables to connect the video camera with the capture card, but the type of cables you’ll need depend on the type of equipment you are using. With an analogue camera, you will connect using either a composite cable or a higher quality S-video cable. Your system may also involve using separate cables to bring in the audio, or sound, component of your video. If that is the case, the audio cables will connect to your computer’s sound card.

You will have to determine which connectors you have available on your camera and video card. Learning how to connect the video camera and your computer will be very important.If you have a digital video camera, you will probably connect using a Fire wire connection (also called IEEE 1394 or iLink). The great advantage with using digital cameras is there is no signal degradation during transfer. Once your video footage has been transferred to the computer you are ready to begin the editing process. Editing typically involves some basic procedures:In 1970’s they did it through a cross fade, but the actor and scenery must remain motionless. In this method, the colour of each pixel is interpolated over time from the first image value to the corresponding second image value.

This is not so effective in suggesting the actual transition. For morphs between faces, the transition does not look good if the two faces do not have the same shape approximately.Sound effects Sound effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media.

 In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific point without the use of words or music. In professional motion picture and television production, the difference between dialogue, music, and sound effects recordings are quite severe, and it is important to understand that in such contexts dialogue and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects.Captions and creditsCaptions are words that may appear on the screen to help guide you or notify you of something that has happened such as a time jump e.g. 3 weeks later if it did not say that then you may still think it was the same time and day instead of 3 weeks later or if it was 3 weeks earlier it would jump back and if someone was dead and it went back without saying and they were alive you would become confused.Credits mainly appear at the end of a movie but also some credits appear at the beginning giving the names of the Director and main actors and other important staff that help to aid in the film making but they appear in more depth at the end naming all of who was in the movie and everyone who helped out to create it from editors to lighting staff and camera tape changers time base correctors.

The time base corrector was a critical development in broadcast television. When recording and playing back video tape, small picture stability errors are inherent due to limits in the mechanical precision of the video tape transport. These time base errors are exhibited as visible distortion, and color smearing. Unless these errors are removed videotapes cannot meet FCC standards for broadcast.

A time base corrector allows a videotape recorder to be timed/synchronized to a master sync generator. Videotapes can now be mixed with other video sources without distortions in the image. A time base corrector takes the analogue video from the video tape recorder and loads it into a small digital memory, typically between 2 lines and 1 frame in size. The video can now be synchronized with the master sync generator and leaves the memory free of time base errors. The memory acts as a buffer and outputs analogue video at extremely precise intervals as required to be broadcast.

While in the buffer the video level, black level, color level and color phase can be adjusted. Some time base correctors add video noise reduction and simple digital effects like posterization.The removed colour becomes transparent. This technique is also referred to as “colour keying”, “colour-separation overlay” , “greenscreen” and “bluescreen”. It is used for weather forecasts. The presenter appears to be standing in front of a large map, but in the studio it is actually a large blue or green background.

 The principal subject is filmed against a background having a single colour or a narrow range of colours, usually in the blue or green. When the phase of the chroma signal corresponds to the preprogrammed state associated with the background colour behind the principal subject, the signal from the alternate background is inserted in the composite signal and presented at the output. When the phase of the chroma signal deviates from that associated with the background colour behind the principal subject, video associated with the principal subject is presented at the output.