A project changerequest (PCR) will arise in the event of any additions or alterations to theagreed-upon deliverables for a project. Any event or action that may result inchange of scope, cost, and/or time baseline, should invoke the change process.
The change process is a formal, governed process that aims to providetransparent governance, reliable audit trail, complete integration, andcomprehensive management of all changes.3.1 The Change ProcessAt a high-level, theChange Control process is as follows:· Initiate and validate change.· Assessment of Project Change Request Impact.· Approve and Implement the Change.
· Closeout the Change. 3.1.1 Initiate and Validate ChangeInitiate and Validate Change isaccomplished in three ways, as discussed below:· Initiate Change Requesto Any team member that recognizes a potential requirement for achange, shall initiate a project Change Request. A change is initiated bycompleting sections 1, 2, and 3 of the PCR.
This provides basic projectinformation, and change request description and justification. The person thatinitiates the Change Request is known as the Requestor. After completingsections 1, 2, and 3, the Requestor forwards the project Change Request to theProject Manager for consideration. · Log theChangeo Theproject shall have a Change Request Register on SharePoint or similar. TheProject Change Request Register keeps a logical record of all changes requestedduring the lifecycle of a project.
The Register establishes the audit trail,and provides numerous metadata fields, which can be aggregated to provideimportant statistics and management reports regarding all change requests onthe project.o Everychange shall be registered as a record (line) in the Change Register. As soonas the PCR is started (by completing sections 1, 2, and 3), the requestor shallupload the PCR document as an attachment to the relevant Change Request recordin the project Change register in its native (MS Word) format.
3.1.2 Assessment of Project Change RequestImpactThe PCR Assignee will ensure that avalidated change will be assessed for its impact on the Project, on thefollowing points:· Scope – Contract Managers toadvise changes in scope, i.e. whether scope will be added or removed frompackages/Control Accounts.· Risk – The Risk Management Specialistwill manage the process of identifying any risks associated with the PCR, andthe Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of identified risks.
· Cost – The CostEngineers/Controllers will assess cost impacts on WBS elements and ControlAccounts related to the PCR. The Cost Engineers/Controllers may obtain theassistance of a Quantity Surveyoror other specialist if required.· Project Schedule – TheScheduler will assess the time impact of the PCR on the Master Schedule interms of milestones, critical path, and float analysis.· Engineering and Design willreview possible impacts of the PCR on design specifications, qualityspecifications, scope requirements, and integration.· Quality – The potential impactof the PCR on the Quality Management Plan (inspections, witness points, holdpoints) need to be considered.· Project Integrated Resources –the possible change in Scope, and Resource requirements of the affected/relatedControl Account(s) need to be considered.
· Project Contracts – Dependingon the contract type, the FIDIC Engineer or the Project Manager (NEC) need tobe involved to provide guidance and details on contractual impacts andrequirements because of the PCR.· Impact of not approving the Project Change Request. It is up to the discretion of the PCRAssignee to decide how to obtain change impact assessments from the variousdisciplines – through a one-on-one process, or through changeworkshops/meetings.The relevant Lead/Manager of eachdiscipline above, will ensure that the impact of the requested change on thediscipline, will be comprehensively investigated and analyzed. The Lead/Managerwill provide the PCR assignee with the assessed impact of the change on thediscipline.
The PCR Assignee is responsible for the consolidation of theinformation from the various disciplines, and the updating of the PCR. 3.1.3 Approve and Implement the ChangeEvery Contract will also have acontract specialist appointed to assist the Project Manager (Contract) withlegal contract administration. They are known as follows:· For FIDIC Contracts – FIDICEngineer· For NEC Contracts – ProjectManagerOnce all the disciplineassessments of a requested change have been obtained, the PCR Assignee shallpresent the change to the FIDIC Engineer, and Project Claims and VariationsCommittee (in the case of a FIDIC contract), or the Project Manager (NEC), andthe Project Compensations Events Committee (in the case of an NEC contract).The Committee will review thechange with all its data, and then make a recommendation. The Project Managerwill consider the change and the recommendations made by the Committee. TheProject Manager will then decide how to implement the change.
An implementationplan will be developed and executed. Data in all the relevantdisciplines/systems will be updated in accordance with the execution plan:Scope, Schedule, Cost, Financial (e.g. SAP), Risk, Engineering, Quality,Safety, Contracts, etc.It is the responsibility of thePCR Assignee to monitor and control the implementation of the change.
The following two change controlevents are highlighted below.· ProjectControls – Change Responseo TheProject Controls Manager prepares an official Project Controls response, anincentive or disincentive notification to the Project Manager.o ProjectControls shall ensure that the PCR implementation is integrated into the scope,schedule, cost, and risk systems. · TheProject Managero TheProject Manager ensures that the correct process is followed for FIDIC or theNEC form of Contract:§ FIDIC: Project Claims and Variation Committeeprocess.§ NEC: Project Compensation Events Committeeprocess.
· Approves the implementation ofclaims or variations, giving due consideration to the Committee’srecommendations and advice of the FIDIC Engineer/Project Manager (NEC).· Should the Project Manager (PM)decide to decline the change, the Project Change Request is forwarded to therelevant software for recording purposes. 3.1.4 Closeout the ChangeAfter implementation of the change,the PCR Assignee shall perform the following closeout steps to finalize the PCRimplementing checks and confirmations:· Confirm that the Changesolution has been implemented successfully, i.e. meeting any specifiedoutcomes/requirements.· Confirm that the requiredchanges were made to the Scope Statement, Integrated Work Breakdown Structure,work packages and planning packages, IWBS Detailed Element Descriptions anddictionaries.
In most cases, one or more IWBS elements may be impacted and willrequire updating, so this shall be verified.o Creating or removing of packages.o Moving scope from work packages, planning packages, and procurementpackages.o Adding scope to work packages, planning packages, and procurementpackages.
o Removing scope of work packages, planning packages, and procurementpackages.o Updating the DED Register.3.
2 Change Process During the Design ProcessChange during the design process can comein one of three forms.· The first form is: Decisiono A decision can be made that has no impact on Scope, Time, or Cost,and with no variance from Standards or Specifications. These decisions must belogged in the contract decision register and approved by the design contractmanager, and the engineering manager. · The second form is: Project Changeo A change to contracted scope, time, or cost, or a change that willimpact construction or operating cost, must be logged through the changerequest process. · The last form of change is: Concessiono A concession is permission granted by The Owner to the DesignConsultant for a change in design/specifications that does not have an impacton time and cost, and does not affect technical performance. Concessions shallpass through the change request process; there will be no ‘concession’ processper se. The change process will allow a change to have a “concession” as opposedto a change in the “scope” or “time” or “cost”.
§ A change request can be logged by any stakeholder, provided that theformalized change process is followed.§ Site instructions and concessions can only be issued by the contractmanager or site supervisors.§ Approval required for change requests, site instructions andconcessions are governed by the Project Change Control procedure.§ The Project Manager is finally accountable for the content of allchange requests, site instructions, and concessions.
§ The Project Controls Manager is accountable for the efficiency andeffectiveness of the processes.3.3 Change Process During the Execution PhaseDuring the execution phase, change canresult from the possible causes below. These are merely some examples and notthe entire list of possible causes:· Risk mitigation plans, that mayincur additional scope, cost, and/or time.
· Support services; additional orextended support services may be required.· Quality and technicalperformance monitoring may reveal deviations from design specifications.· Site inspections may revealnon-compliance to designs or management plans, e.g. environmental managementplans, design omissions or flaws, unexpected environmental conditions, etc.· Construction and packageintegration; modification of the scope of packages may be required.
· Budget change: Changes toestimates and budget allocations across WBS elements may be required.· Risk Management:o That any risks that have been identified and managed in relation tothe PCR, have been recorded in the Risk register.o That relevant Risk descriptions, metadata, and statuses have beencorrectly updated.· CostManagement:o Budgetshifts across WBS work packages, planning packages, and procurement packagesalong with corresponding scope.o Requestsfor contingency to fund changes to work packages, planning packages, and/or procurement packagesas per defined contingency scope.o Return ofsavings from budget or contract into contingency.o Additionof cost to a contract (budget must be available).
o Removal ofcost from a contract (can be returned to budget or contingency as a saving).· Schedule:o Creatingor removing of packages.o Movingscope from work packages, planning packages, and procurement packages.o Addingscope to work packages, planning packages, and procurement packages.o Removingwork packages, planning packages, and procurement packages.o Projectmaster schedule, or stakeholder schedules (shift of major milestones).
· Engineeringand design:o Newdrawings/specifications, and maintenance manuals.o Red-lineddrawings/specifications, and maintenance manuals.o Newrevisions of marked-up drawings/specifications, and maintenance manuals.o Signed-offand Closed Engineering Technical Queries.o Approvedand Closed Concessions. · Quality:o Changes tostandards and specifications – applicable across all contracts.o Changes toQuality Control Plans –contract specific.o Non-ConformanceReport (NCR).
· Project Integrated Resources:o Updatedresource requirements and allocations in relevant Work Packages and Planning Packages. · Project Contracts:o Approved and signed-off Claims or Variation Orders(FIDIC), or Compensation Events (NEC).o Communicationwith sourcing department via FIDIC Engineer or Project Manager (NEC) to updatecommercial documentation.· Systems:Changes to project systems (replace any project system with a new alternative).· Financial:o Ensurethat the Financial Officers updated the Purchase Order and Task Orderinformation in the relevant software system (e.
g. SAP).o Ensurethat Control Account Information has been updated in accordance with the PCRsolution.· Changes topolicy, processes, procedures, and templates and forms once approved (PPPTs).· RelevantSoftware:o Ensurethat the software record is accurately updated with the final data of the PCR.