Depiction of sexual behavior -> designed to cause
sexual excitement. From the Greek word porni
graphein -> prostitute to write, depicting the life of prostitutes.
of pornography is subjective; history of pornography is impossible to uncover ->
to the beginning of time. Imagery that is seen as sexual & erotic may be
religious in another society. European to India were shocked by the imagery on Hindu
temples such as Khajuraho. Muslim societies would label mainstream…”pornography”.
Pornography classification is essentially dependent on the society and on the
illustrations of sexual behavior were in a religious perspective. 1603 – 1867
Japan developed a society where visual erotica -> pillow pictures, woodblock
art prints and books that it became a social main display. Production of this
material was so large -> 18th century government officials were
implementing laws and arrests in attempt to lessen. 1500s Europe created new
technologies -> prints containing humor, romance and erotica.
history of Western pornography advanced in the 18th century ->
printing technology was so cutting-edge -> able to be distributed to all socioeconomic
levels and audiences. Pornography became a symbol of political protest against
the church & state.
Century the inventions of photography and motion pictures -> immediately
used. Distributed by the 1920s and by the 1960s the development of videocassettes
and digital videodiscs. The emergence of internet in the 1990s provided the
perfect platform for industry -> most profitable.
What drives this helps comprehend the reason why porn has flourished the way it
has. A Marxist theory of pornography, not a problem to do with men, as we
cannot deny all of the industry is controlled by men.
by profit and competition; make money from every aspect in life, everything is
a commodity for price. Purchased or sold, emotions and sexuality. Socialists ->
openness with sex, demand of the ‘1960s women’s liberation movement’ that sex
should be for pleasure and not only procreation.
about sex, about making profit. The profits industry is worth $US97 billion, a yearly
gross of $7 billion in the late 1990s.
competition -> rivals, the most explicit and extreme images. Limits horizons
of sex. Narrow vision -> based on stereotypes. What men want from women.
Radical feminists in 1970s Andrea Dworkin and Susan Brown miller -> porn led
to violence against women. Socialists it does not cause but reinforces women
-> sex objects -> women to suffer in the production of porn.
porn principles: Demand cheap labor to turn maximum profit -> An individual
rate for fetish porn is $300 more than the company wants to pay; Hire another
girl for cheaper.
a disposable labor force to continue turning max profit -> As a consumer you
don’t like this girl, click on another one. Girl contracts HIV after production
of a film -> As a director, hire another girl without HIV.
inequality -> motivator for selling sex, this inequality is a capitalist
drive that the industry exploits.
security demands education -> a reason women choose to take up porn. The
claim that selling sex can help a woman evade poverty, on a micro level, could
be an argument -> generally new comers make minimal amount in return for
selling one’s body, reputation & future job opportunities.
in porn is a way of disrupting patriarchy capitalism. PC & free market ->
value of your body, and when she is no longer of use -> time to retire.
After she will re-enter the patriarchal capitalist society.
Individualism approach ->
Moral -> they endorse the individual’s best long-term interests, ->
greater good -> gratifying immediate self-interest.
Moral rights approach -> M. decisions
best maintain the rights of those people affected by them, people rights cannot
be taken away -> Right to privacy, right to free consent, right to freedom
Justice approach -> Ethical
concept -> moral decisions must be based on standards of equity, fairness
and impartiality: Distributive justice -> different treatment of people not
based characteristics; Procedural justice -> Requires rules be administered
fairly; Compensatory justice -> Compensation for the cost of their injuries
by the party responsible.