– a religious perspective. 1603 – 1867 Japan

–       Depiction of sexual behavior -> designed to causesexual excitement. From the Greek word pornigraphein -> prostitute to write, depicting the life of prostitutes. –       Classificationof pornography is subjective; history of pornography is impossible to uncover ->to the beginning of time. Imagery that is seen as sexual & erotic may bereligious in another society. European to India were shocked by the imagery on Hindutemples such as Khajuraho.

Muslim societies would label mainstream…”pornography”.Pornography classification is essentially dependent on the society and on theindividual opinion. –       Historically,illustrations of sexual behavior were in a religious perspective. 1603 – 1867Japan developed a society where visual erotica -> pillow pictures, woodblockart prints and books that it became a social main display. Production of thismaterial was so large -> 18th century government officials wereimplementing laws and arrests in attempt to lessen. 1500s Europe created newtechnologies -> prints containing humor, romance and erotica.

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–       Modernhistory of Western pornography advanced in the 18th century ->printing technology was so cutting-edge -> able to be distributed to all socioeconomiclevels and audiences. Pornography became a symbol of political protest againstthe church & state. –       19thCentury the inventions of photography and motion pictures -> immediatelyused. Distributed by the 1920s and by the 1960s the development of videocassettesand digital videodiscs. The emergence of internet in the 1990s provided theperfect platform for industry -> most profitable.

–       Capitalism:What drives this helps comprehend the reason why porn has flourished the way ithas. A Marxist theory of pornography, not a problem to do with men, as wecannot deny all of the industry is controlled by men.  –       Motivatedby profit and competition; make money from every aspect in life, everything isa commodity for price. Purchased or sold, emotions and sexuality. Socialists ->openness with sex, demand of the ‘1960s women’s liberation movement’ that sexshould be for pleasure and not only procreation. –       Notabout sex, about making profit. The profits industry is worth $US97 billion, a yearlygross of $7 billion in the late 1990s.

–       Thecompetition -> rivals, the most explicit and extreme images. Limits horizonsof sex. Narrow vision -> based on stereotypes.

What men want from women.Radical feminists in 1970s Andrea Dworkin and Susan Brown miller -> porn ledto violence against women. Socialists it does not cause but reinforces women-> sex objects -> women to suffer in the production of porn. –       Capporn principles: Demand cheap labor to turn maximum profit -> An individualrate for fetish porn is $300 more than the company wants to pay; Hire anothergirl for cheaper. –       Demandsa disposable labor force to continue turning max profit -> As a consumer youdon’t like this girl, click on another one. Girl contracts HIV after productionof a film -> As a director, hire another girl without HIV.

–       Economicinequality -> motivator for selling sex, this inequality is a capitalistdrive that the industry exploits. –       Economicsecurity demands education -> a reason women choose to take up porn. Theclaim that selling sex can help a woman evade poverty, on a micro level, couldbe an argument -> generally new comers make minimal amount in return forselling one’s body, reputation & future job opportunities. –       participatingin porn is a way of disrupting patriarchy capitalism. PC & free market ->value of your body, and when she is no longer of use -> time to retire.After she will re-enter the patriarchal capitalist society. –       Individualism approach ->Moral -> they endorse the individual’s best long-term interests, ->greater good -> gratifying immediate self-interest.

–       Moral rights approach -> M. decisionsbest maintain the rights of those people affected by them, people rights cannotbe taken away -> Right to privacy, right to free consent, right to freedomspeech. –       Justice approach -> Ethicalconcept -> moral decisions must be based on standards of equity, fairnessand impartiality: Distributive justice -> different treatment of people notbased characteristics; Procedural justice -> Requires rules be administeredfairly; Compensatory justice -> Compensation for the cost of their injuriesby the party responsible.