– a religious perspective. 1603 – 1867 Japan

–       
Depiction of sexual behavior -> designed to cause
sexual excitement. From the Greek word porni
graphein -> prostitute to write, depicting the life of prostitutes.

–       
Classification
of pornography is subjective; history of pornography is impossible to uncover ->
to the beginning of time. Imagery that is seen as sexual & erotic may be
religious in another society. European to India were shocked by the imagery on Hindu
temples such as Khajuraho. Muslim societies would label mainstream…”pornography”.

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Pornography classification is essentially dependent on the society and on the
individual opinion.

–       
Historically,
illustrations of sexual behavior were in a religious perspective. 1603 – 1867
Japan developed a society where visual erotica -> pillow pictures, woodblock
art prints and books that it became a social main display. Production of this
material was so large -> 18th century government officials were
implementing laws and arrests in attempt to lessen. 1500s Europe created new
technologies -> prints containing humor, romance and erotica.

–       
Modern
history of Western pornography advanced in the 18th century ->
printing technology was so cutting-edge -> able to be distributed to all socioeconomic
levels and audiences. Pornography became a symbol of political protest against
the church & state.

–       
19th
Century the inventions of photography and motion pictures -> immediately
used. Distributed by the 1920s and by the 1960s the development of videocassettes
and digital videodiscs. The emergence of internet in the 1990s provided the
perfect platform for industry -> most profitable.

–       
Capitalism:
What drives this helps comprehend the reason why porn has flourished the way it
has. A Marxist theory of pornography, not a problem to do with men, as we
cannot deny all of the industry is controlled by men.  

–       
Motivated
by profit and competition; make money from every aspect in life, everything is
a commodity for price. Purchased or sold, emotions and sexuality. Socialists ->
openness with sex, demand of the ‘1960s women’s liberation movement’ that sex
should be for pleasure and not only procreation.

–       
Not
about sex, about making profit. The profits industry is worth $US97 billion, a yearly
gross of $7 billion in the late 1990s.

–       
The
competition -> rivals, the most explicit and extreme images. Limits horizons
of sex. Narrow vision -> based on stereotypes. What men want from women.

Radical feminists in 1970s Andrea Dworkin and Susan Brown miller -> porn led
to violence against women. Socialists it does not cause but reinforces women
-> sex objects -> women to suffer in the production of porn.

–       
Cap
porn principles: Demand cheap labor to turn maximum profit -> An individual
rate for fetish porn is $300 more than the company wants to pay; Hire another
girl for cheaper.

–       
Demands
a disposable labor force to continue turning max profit -> As a consumer you
don’t like this girl, click on another one. Girl contracts HIV after production
of a film -> As a director, hire another girl without HIV.

–       
Economic
inequality -> motivator for selling sex, this inequality is a capitalist
drive that the industry exploits.

–       
Economic
security demands education -> a reason women choose to take up porn. The
claim that selling sex can help a woman evade poverty, on a micro level, could
be an argument -> generally new comers make minimal amount in return for
selling one’s body, reputation & future job opportunities.

–       
participating
in porn is a way of disrupting patriarchy capitalism. PC & free market ->
value of your body, and when she is no longer of use -> time to retire.

After she will re-enter the patriarchal capitalist society.

–       
Individualism approach ->
Moral -> they endorse the individual’s best long-term interests, ->
greater good -> gratifying immediate self-interest.

–       
Moral rights approach -> M. decisions
best maintain the rights of those people affected by them, people rights cannot
be taken away -> Right to privacy, right to free consent, right to freedom
speech.

–       
Justice approach -> Ethical
concept -> moral decisions must be based on standards of equity, fairness
and impartiality: Distributive justice -> different treatment of people not
based characteristics; Procedural justice -> Requires rules be administered
fairly; Compensatory justice -> Compensation for the cost of their injuries
by the party responsible.