AbstractThis research attempts to highlight Zizek`s notion of violence in the light of psychoanalysis in Novels Neverlet me go and Remains of the day by Kazuo Ishiguro. These notions practice ofviolence, social ideology, and Marxism in this research. One of the prominentfeature to this work look at theforces of violence in our world.
Corresponding, Ishiguro`s novel wanted to showus that people are alone and how capitalist control and deceive them and theyfeel endorsement at the moment of their lives. This research tries to show what`s the significant message behind thesenovels by taking Zizek`s notion into consideration and what kind of power causepeople be able so wild and unemotional. Key words: Kazuo Ishiguro, Zizek, violence, Marxism, Social ideology,Psychoanalysis, Capitalism Table of content:1-General Overview 42-Statement of the Problem 63-Significance of the Study 74-Delimitation 85-Approach and Methodology 86-Literature Review 117-Tentative Outline 148-Definition of Key Terms 15 1-General Overview Kazuo Ishiguro isBritish novelist, screenwriter, and short story writer. He was born inNagasaki, Japan; his family moved to England when he was five because of hisfather was invited for research at the National Institute of oceanography.
Kazuodid not return Japan for thirty years. As matter of fact, He grew up withstrange image of his head about his country. He had little familiarity withJapanese writing and he thought his work bear little similarity to Japanesefiction. He studied his education at the University ofEast An Anglia and also he graduated from the University of Kent with abachelor’s degree in English and Philosophy. Most of his novels are set in thepast and memory. One of his famous novel Never Let Me Go is sciencefiction and it`s about future.
TheRemains of the Day is set in the large country house of an English lord inthe period surrounding World War II. Ishiguro has writteneight novels since he started working as a full time author in all of hisnovels. Several of his novels have been made into movies and he also is writtensome screenplays himself.
His novels often end without any sense of resolution.The significant issue of his character in novels confront are buried in thepast and remain unresolved. In fact he ends many of his novels on note ofmelancholic resignation. Ishiguro is one of themost prominent Asian American writers won Nobel Prize. In 2017 he was awardedthe Nobel Prize in Literature, the Japanese-born English novelist who writeslovely, lyrical books about trauma, repression, and survival. He said “he wasboth honoured and taken completely by surprise after he was named winner ofthe2017 Novel Prize. “ He was praised by Swedish Academy for novels whichuncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world.
Hestresses people live in political system and lost their faith and values in theworld and he hopes his writings bring up peace in difficult situations that welive. Ishiguro is one of the celebrated contemporary fiction authors in the English-speakingworld, having received four Man Book Prize nominations and winning the 1989award for his novel The remains of the Day in 2005 novel Never Let MeGo was named by time as the best novel in list of 100 best English language novels. Zizek was born in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia into middle –class family. Hisparents were atheists.
He spent his childhood in the coastal town where he watchedmany western films. As a matter of fact, he is a continental philosopher, asenior researcher at the Institute for sociology and philosophy at theUniversity of Ljubljana. His main interests and works are philosophy, politicaltheory, cultural studies, psychoanalysis, film criticism, Marxism, Hegelianismand theology. He accounts as an intellectual man that livesin contemporary world. He has many ideas about different aspects of our life.His character is very unpredictable, and most of the time his audiences arebeing confused by his weird ideas and he almost has an idea in everything andargues it. One of his major work is Violence: Sixsideways Reflection.
In this book he explores new ideas about violence and familiar usto new ways of thinking. He mentions different types of violence: subjectiveviolence, objective violence or symbolic violence, systematic violence, SOS violence.He uses occasion and history to explain violence.
Zizekpublished his first English text the sublime object of ideology, thetext referred to psychoanalysis and Hegelian idealism. His early theoreticalwork became in a political way and contacting frequently in the criticalanalysis of disparate forms popular figure of the academic left. He has an ideain every arguments and he puts in everything that people discuss. He has anindividualism style, most of critical magazine memberships called him asinternational influence philosophy in twentieth century. He appointed as globalthinker in 2012 by Foreign Policy.
Heedited and translated Jacques Lacan, Sigmund Freud, and Louis Althusser. Infact he used Lacan`s work to interpret Hegelian and Marxist philosophy. Zizekhas been a hardworking writer and many his ideas are very complicated. Hefocuses on the concept of ideology, which is the most important ideas incritical theory. In fact ideology in his perspective is central concept thatdeals with in his writing. Ideology involves power and domination. Zizek`ideology has three parts. First ideology set of ideas.
Second ideology hasmaterial component or something concrete. And finally ideology becomes part ofour social world. 2-Statement of problemIn modern society, we have many intellectual theorists who havealways sought to new ways to solve problems by identifying new concepts. Thewanted to show us new ways that we can communicate and understand. One of themost important elements we deal with is violence. The present research examinesviolence in novels Never let me go and Remains of the day by KazuoIshiguro.
Human dignity is thefoundation of human rights and one of the deficiencies of human dignity is theissue of violence. At first we mustexplain what is violence? Violence isthe use of physical force to put others at a disadvantages. Violence is used as means of controlthroughout the world. One important itembehind violence is power. In fact, power is deep layer indirectly controlviolence. Power and violence work together.
In pre-modern period power actedintermittently. That means only whensomebody did something wrong or only somebody disobeyed the law, he was captureby those people in power. But, in modernperiod the controlling of the process of the identity formation starts from dayone. And we are going witness the continuation of the ideological moulding throughoutthe whole life of the individualism. In fact with all that is said above, this research wants to show us to response many questions which are inour minds in relation of Zizek`s violence. The emergence of investment or capitalist, and indeed civilization, is more than means of preventing violence or creating violence and how do characters align withviolence in these two novels Never let me go and Remain of the day. Thisresearch will cover following questions by reading novels Never let me go andRemains of the day through Zizek`s thought: 1) Howdo interpret violence of Zizek in novels Never let me go and Remainsof the day?2) Which one of violence that Zizek account in his book ismore highlighted in these novels?3) What signs can be found in the novels to display different types of violence?4) Howdoes capitalist penetrate in character`s mind in perception of Zizek?5) How does encountered violence and violence consequence can be diagnosed with neo-liberal economist and self-serving assertions of human rights?6) Whatis the great ideological illusions in these novels by Zizekian? 3-Significance of the studyZizek`s ideology has not been applied just to violence. He is an intellectualtheorist and he almost speaks about everything he uses history, philosophy,books, movies, and psychoanalysis to study styles of apprehensive anddisapprehenisive of violence.
This article explores newhorizons of knowing and understanding violence in postmodern areas and how wecan relate it to novels by Kazuo Ishiguro. 4-DelimitationIn this research the main concepts by Zizek include violence,capitalist in society, subjective violence, and objective violence according tointerruption. All of these ideas are taken from his book six sides ofviolence .Also, two works are used here for application, which are Neverlet me go and Remains of the day by Ishiguro.
The research scopeis confined to these works. 5-Approach and Methodology Everything haschanged. The world around us has suffered a lot of disorder anddisorientation. People do not know anddo not understand what happened to them in this era and how they can think in20 century. In fact we are living in a postmodern world. Actually, postmodernis a word used to describe major changes in the underlying ways people think—especially the way people view truth and reality.
In a postmodern world, truthand reality are individually shaped by personal history, social class, gender,culture, and religion. In fact, Postmodernity, as a worldview, refuses to allowany single defining source for truth and reality. The new emphasis is ondifference, plurality and selective forms of tolerance. Postmodern thinking isfull of absurdities and inconsistencies. It is, for example, the worldview thatsays no worldview exists. It demands an imposed uniformity in an effort toresist uniformity.
A greatly fertile andentertaining contemporary writer, Zizek is probably one of the smartestobserver of postmodernism culture, both high and low culture. He analyzed manyauthors such as Lacan, Hegel, and Marx. He has great ideas almost in everythinghe enters in different aspects of our lives: culture, politic, psychology,religion and everything you can guess. What is interesting to me he even speaksabout problems in my country in Iran. This research tries toreveal the hidden dimensions of human nature by Zizek and how these hiddendimensions of human being can go through beyond human nature.
In the externalcontext, it will appear in a different format and be considered as violence. Heuses history, philosophy, books, movies, Lacanian psychiatry, and jokes, toshow us how these ways we see and unseen violence.it is important to bementioned that all the process should be analyzed through the idea of forms ofviolence, capitalism, political system in famous novels by Kazuo Ishiguoro`s Never Let Me Go and The Remains of theday. For Zizek, violence hasthree forms–subjective (crime, terror), objective (racism, hate-speech,discrimination), and systemic (the catastrophic effects of economic andpolitical systems)–and often one form of violence effect our ability to seethe others, raising complicated questions. And which one of violence is morehighlighted. The first notion wediscussed in this research is subjective violence that Zizek uses this term inhis book: Simon Critchley, in hisreview of Violence, writes:Our subjective outrage at the facts of violence – a suicidebombing, a terrorist attack, the assassination of a political figure – blindsus to the objective violence of the world, a violence where we are perpetratorsand not just innocent bystanders … The main ambition of this book is to bringtogether subjective violence with the objective violence that is its undersideand precondition. It looks very much as though Critchley isperforming an alternative version of the foreseeable misconstrue, glossing”subjective violence” erroneously as “our subjective outrage at the facts ofviolence”. Well, Zizek does talk about outrage etc.
, but our outrage is said tobe precisely outrage at “subjective violence”, i.e. it really is the violence,and not the outrage, that is “subjective”. We can also say that whatZizek means by “subjective violence” is conscious (i.
e. willed, deliberate orwhatever) violence as opposed to the unconscious or impersonal otherviolence’s; however this same definition encompasses also the commoner usage ofsubjective as an adjective meaning “all in the mind”. Presumably, “subjective violence” issubjective because it is intentional, (and thus also deriving from a state ofmind), and also because it is directed at another, who is also a specificsubject, aiming to annul that subject. (“Intersubjective violence” just won’tdo: “intersubjective” is such a mealy mouth word.) The second notion thatwill applied to the text is objective violence. 6-Literature ReviewThe primary work in this research is Never Let Me Go byKazuo Ishiguro. Never Let Me Go is a dystopian science fiction novel byNobel Prize-winning British author Kazuo Ishiguro.
Never Let Me Go is ametaphor for and a meditation on mortality. Learning of their fate, the clonesdo not rebel. Falling in love and having much to live for, they do not rebel.Losing pieces of their bodies to donations, they do not rebel. Do you see the parallels aroundyou? Children learn about death, and accept that they will die intellectually,but have no knowledge of dying. Throughout life, falling in love, enrichingthemselves, they smoke, drink, remain physically idle, and eat themselves intodiabetes. The increasing debility of old age, dying one cell at a time, bringsrealization of the true character of death, but it is often not enough to movethem off the couch or away from the bonbons.
In the aggregate, thesame denial and acceptance occurs. Life extension research is laughed at. Areyou aware of any academic or scientific institution of good reputation whichconducts research into immortality? The fear of dying is one of the mostpowerful human instincts, but the fear of struggling against it must be equallypowerful. Remain of the Day isanother famous novel by Kazuo Ishiguro that it discussed in this research.
Iasked myself this same question during reading. Although Miss Kenton wasdefinitely one to appreciate the professionalism and quality with which Mr.Stevens conducted his work that in itself does not seem enough to fall in lovewith him. Especially considering the inconsiderate and sometimes unpleasant wayin which Mr. Stevens treated her.
However, I also believe that Mr. Stevens does not give a goodportrayal of their relationship. Mr. Stevens’ recollections mainly focus ontheir disagreements and how they grew apart. We are never shown the amiablenature or pleasant conversation the two may have had during their daily parlormeetings. I am convinced that Miss Kenton and Mr.
Stevens actually shared someconnection during these meetings (even though Mr. Stevens will undoubtedly haveremained very professional during them). Miss Kenton could probably see the manbehind the butler in those instances, allowing her to fall in love with him.However, since Mr. Stevens does not consider such social interaction betweenthem to bear any significance or relevance, he does not tell us anything aboutit.The next main work that is used as the basic reference is KazuoIshiguro and Memory by Yugin Teo. Memory asserts an enigmatic influenceover us.
It simultaneously soothes and unsettles us, linking us with our pastand our histories while possessing the power to control our future. The role ofmemory has implications for both the individual and the collective; withoutmemory, we would not have a sense of who we are as individuals, and without theprovision of shared memory, a group of individuals would not have a collectiveidentity. The grip of memory can have an overpowering and crippling effect onindividuals, adversely affecting the paths they choose in the course of theirlifetimes. Pivotal events or incidents that have taken place in the past (andsome may appear to be deceptively insignificant at the time) often prove tohave significantly shaped the unconscious later on.
These events areexemplified by missed opportunities, regretful conversations and, uponretrospection, poorly made decisions. Kazuo Ishiguro’s novels frequently depictthese emotive journeys of memory. The implications of such memories forindividual characters are demonstrated through feelings of profound regret anda pervading sense of mourning. The implications of shared memory for a collective,however, are often more subtle. Violence: Six SidewaysReflections is the majorbook that is the basic reference in this research by Zizek.
The premise ofZizek’s theory is that the subjective violence we see – violence with a clearidentifiable agent – is only the tip of an iceberg made up of ‘systemic’violence, which is essentially the catastrophic consequence of the smoothfunctioning of our economic and political systems. With the help of Marx,Engels, Sartre, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Lacan, Brecht and many more, Zizek examinesthe hidden causes of violence, delving into the supposed ‘divine violence’which propels suicide bombers and the unseen ‘systemic’ violence which liesbehind outbursts, from Parisian suburbia to New Orleans. For Zizek, thecontroversial truth is that sometimes doing nothing is the most violent thingyou can do. He calls for a forceful confrontation with the vacuity of today’sdemocracies – using an unconventional plethora of references. The How to Read Lacan is famous series book by Zizek and provides a context and anexplanation that will facilitate and enrich your understanding of texts vitalto the canon.
These books use excerpts from the major texts to explainessential topics, such as Jacques Lacan’s core ideas about enjoyment, whichre-created our concept of psychoanalysis. Lacan’s motto of the ethics ofpsychoanalysis involves a profound paradox. Traditionally, psychoanalysis wasexpected to allow the patient to overcome the obstacles which prevented accessto “normal” sexual enjoyment; today, however, we are bombarded bydifferent versions of the injunction “Enjoy!” Psychoanalysis is theonly discourse in which you are allowed not to enjoy. Zizek believes The Sublime Object ofIdeology to be one of his best books, heprovides an analysis of “How did Marx Invent the Symptom?” in which hecompares the ways in which the notion of symptom runs through the work of KarlMarx and Sigmund Freud. Zizek opposes any simplistic reading of the twothinkers, who are shown to have discovered the “kernel” of meaningconcealed within the apparently unconnected “forms” of commodities(Marx) and dreams (Freud). The kernelof a commodity’s content is labor and its latent meaning is the dream.
Zizekthinks it more important to ask why latent content takes a particular form. Zizektherefore argues that according to both Freud and Marx the dream-work andcommodity-form itself require analysis. 7-Tentative Outline Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1. General Overview 1.
2. Statement of the Problem 1.3. Significance ofthe Study 1.4. Delimitation 1.5.
Approach andMethodology 1.6. LiteratureReview 1.7. Tentative Outline 1.8.
Definition ofKey TermsChapter 2: Zizek`s Violence and Effects on Characters in Novels 2.1. SubjectiveViolence 2.2. ObjectiveViolence 2.3. SystematicViolence 2.
4. General View:Violence: Six Sideways 2.5. Violence in NeverLet Me Go and The Remains of the DayChapter 3: Psychoanalysis Reading on Novels 3.1. LacanianReading by Perspective of Zizek 3.2.
Comparison Characters in View ofLacanChapter 4: Politic and Capitalist 4.1. Do ChildrenBrainwash By Ideology 4.2. HowCapitalism Control Character `s of Novels 4.3.
Why Charactersdo not Rebel 4.4. How Social IdeologyUse of Their PropertiesChapter 5: Conclusion 5.
1. Summing Up 5.2. Findings 5.3. Suggestion forFurther Studies 5.
4. Bibliography 8. Definition of Key Terms:Violence: is defined by the World Health Organization as “theintentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, againstoneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either resultsin or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm,maldevelopment, or deprivation”, although the group acknowledges that theinclusion of “the use of power” in its definition expands on theconventional understanding of the word.
2 This definition involvesintentionality with the committing of the act itself, irrespective of theoutcome it produces. However, generally, anything that is excited in aninjurious or damaging way may be described as violent even if not meant to beviolence (by a person and against a person). Marxism: Marx believesthe bourgeoisie are going to control the whole society through a culturalsphere or through superstructure.
That is to say, the bourgeoisie injects hisown ideology through the working of superstructures. Ideology: The beliefs, ideas, and values of the rulingclass, bourgeoisie that circulates in all different social classes and culturalsphere. Ideology should act in a way that people think there is no conflictbetween their own benefits and benefits of the bourgeoisie.
It is duty of theartist to uncover the kind of conflict that exist between the interests ofdifferent classes and to show the labor, the proletariat, the hidden workingideology. Capitalism: is an economic system and ideology based upon private ownership ofthe means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics centralto capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor,voluntary exchange, a price system and competitive markets. In a capitalistmarket economy, decision-making and investment are determined by the owners ofthe means of production in financial and capital markets, whereas prices andthe distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition ingoods and services markets.