Abstract This paper presents the quality of interpreting based on the role play interpreting class done at sixth semester of English Letters Department’s students. The research used qualitative method and the data were taken from the observation during the practice in interpreting class and scoring by the raters. The result of every aspect in quality of interpreting are good with the total score 2.37 from 3 for the fidelity, 2.
3 from 3 for the structure, 2.29 from 3 for the vocabulary and the last is 2.27 from 3 for the naturalness. Some students also have good and consistent vocabulary during the interpreting process but have problem in naturalness proved by the lowest scores that the aspect of naturalness than the other aspects.
Keyword: Interpreting, Quality of Interpreting, Role Play. IntroductionNowadays, studying English as second language is not hard to get in school. Almost every school in Indonesia, start from elementary school, the students could study English.
Mostly, the universities in Indonesia offer English major, English education or English letters. But, not all the universities in Indonesia are offering Interpreting class. One of universities which is offering Interpreting class is IAIN Surakarta.
Sometimes, interpreting is reputed not really important but if we know in business and education area, interpreting is worthwhile to understand.Interpreting is regarded as translational activity because in the terms of interpreting there is Source Language (SL) translating into Target Language (TL) by human translator. Pöchhacker(2004) described interpreting is a form of Translation in which a ?rst and ?nal rendition in another language is produced on the basis of a one-time presentation of an utterance in a source language. This means that interpreting is a part of translation because there is first rendition or Source Language (SL) and final rendition or Target Language (TL) which produced orally in one time presentation.Interpreting is about transferring message or explaining the meaning from one language into another language orally.
The simple terms of interpreting is “(T)he interpreter has first to listen to the speaker, understand and analyze what is being said, and then re-synthesize the speech in the appropriate form in a different language …” (Mikkelson, 2010). This means that in interpreting activity, the interpreter has to listen carefully to the speaker and understand the context, and then analyze and transfer the message into Target Language (TL). Pöchhacker (2004) described the meaning of interpreter is the Latin term interpres, denoting someone ‘explaining the meaning’, ‘making sense of’ what others have dif?culty understanding, is a highly appropriate semantic foundation for ‘interpreter’ and ‘interpreting’ in our current understanding. A person who translates orally for parties conversing in different language is Interpreter.The interpreting performance is depending on the mode of delivery, the setting of place the event and the subject matter of the interpreted event.
(Mikkelson, 2010) has categorized the 13 types of interpreting event : 1) Simultaneous Interpreting, 2) Consecutive Interpreting, 3) Whispered Interpreting, 4) Conference Interpreting, 5) Seminar Interpreting, 6) Escort Interpreting, 7) Media Interpreting, 8) Court Interpreting, 9) Business Interpreting, 10) Medical Interpreting, 11) Educational Interpreting, 12) Over-the-Phone Interpreting, 13) Community Interpreting. According to the modes of interpreting, there are three types of interpreting: Simultaneous Interpreting, Consecutive Interpreting and Interpreting Based on the Place. The types of interpreting which used in role play interpreting are Simultaneous Interpreting and Consecutive Interpreting.
Simultaneous Interpreting is interpreting the target language message at the same time as the source language message is being produced. According to Saleskovitch (1978) defines that in the Simultaneous Interpretation the interpreter is isolated in a booth. He speaks at the same time as the speaker and therefore has no need to memorize or jot down what is said. The interpreter works on the message by bit, giving the portion he has understood while analyzing. It is commonly practiced at international conferences and forums. Consecutive Interpreting is the interpreter renders the speaker’s message into another language when the speaker pauses to allow interpretation.
The interpreter must give a structured and accurate rendering of the meaning of the statement with no major distortions of meaning, changes to the logical order of the statement or serious omissions of detail.In interpreting, there is quality assessment to measure the process or the product of interpreting is successful or no. Quality in interpreting has been investigated at various levels, with studies centred on customer expectations and priorities and their relevance for different user groups (Garzone et al, 2001:26). Pöchhacker (2017) has categorized two quality standards: the quality of service and the quality of product in interpreting. Tateyama (2008) has categorized five crucial factors when an interpreter wants to produce a good interpreting product: Fidelity, Vocabulary, Background Knowledge, and Structure and Naturalness. Nowadays, some of educational institutions in Indonesia concerned in the interpreting study. The important of interpreting in translation scope makes the institution take a concern in studying and training of interpreting.
One of universities in Indonesia which providing the interpreting course is IAIN Surakarta. IAIN Surakarta provides interpreting class in English Department, especially English Letters Department. IAIN Surakarta provides interpreting lesson as a subject supporting students in practicing interpreting. Some of interpreting studies and training, hopefully the students can be achieved a good skill of undertaking translation especially in interpreting. Interpreting class is one of English Letters Department’s syllabus in sixth semester of IAIN Surakarta in 2016/2017 educational year. Interpreting class is obligate class which has to take for sixth semester students in Translation major of English Letters.
Interpreting class has two credits for one semester. It has fourteen meetings which has two types of meeting: theoretical and practical. In the first until ninth meetings are theoretical classes which every student in a group presents a different topic of interpreting every week. In the tenth and eleventh meetings are practice classes for note taking in interpreting. Thus, in the twelfth until fourteenth meetings are practice classes for role play in interpreting. The aim of role play in interpreting is to make students practice on interpreting and have an experience in interpreting scope.Role play in interpreting class is one of interpreting methods on learning interpreting. Cambridge dictionary described role play is pretending to be someone else, especially as part of learning a new skill.
Role play is used in training courses, language learning and psychotherapy. Looking at the illustration above, this paper wants to figure out of how is the quality of interpreting in role play interpreting class.In the other hand, role play can be a quite simple and brief technique to organize. It is also highly flexible, leaving much more scope for the exercise of individual variation, initiative and imagination.
And role play also included in simulation as well. Donn Byrne gave comments that role play is a part of drama activity. In details, he described that there are three terms to cover the drama activities, they are :· MimeThe participants perform actions without using words (although as we shall see, this activity leads naturally on to talk).· Role playThe participant interact either as themselves in imaginary situations. · SimulationThis involves role play as defined above. However, for this activity the participants normally discuss a problem of some kind with some setting that has been defined for them.Role play and simulation are commonly used in foreign language classes to facilitate communicative competence.
Whereas, mime doesn’t appropriate in teaching and practicing interpreting because it is an action performance without using words. Thus, role play is the best method to practice interpreting.The aim of this study is to analyze the quality of role play interpreting. The strategies used to render the data from the speaker to the audience which inducing the quality of interpreting. The data was selected in the role-play in interpreting class of English Letters sixth semester in IAIN Surakarta in educational year of 2016/2017. The researcher used its data because role play is one of the interpreting practices in the interpreting class of English Letters sixth semester in Translation major of IAIN Surakarta in educational year of 2016/2017.
The study case is worthwhile to analyze because it is included many aspects of interpreting and useful to analyze to effectiveness in studying interpreting. The study will be analyzed the details in analysis section to show the quality of interpreting. Methodology This research is qualitative research, mostly discussing on case study. The alternative strategies of inquiry used in qualitative research are narratives, phenomenologies, ethnographies, grounded theory, and case studies (Cresswell, 2002). Case studies, in which the researcher explores in depth a program, an event, an activity, a process, or one or more individuals. The case(s) are bounded by time and activity, and researchers collect detailed information using a variety of data collection procedures over a sustained period of time (Cresswell, 2002).
The procedures of qualitative research methods are emerging methods, open-ended questions, interview data, observation data, document data, audiovisual data, and text and image analysis (Cresswell, 2002).The subject of this research is sixth semester students of Interpreting class in English Letters of IAIN Surakarta in 2016/2017 educational year. Interpreting class is obligate class which has to take for sixth semester students in Translation major of English Letters. Interpreting class has two credits for one semester. Interpreting class has fourteen meetings which has two types of meeting: theoretical and practical. In the first until ninth meetings are theoretical classes which every student in a group presents a different topic of interpreting every week. In the tenth and eleventh meetings are practice classes for note taking in interpreting. Thus, in the twelfth until fourteenth meetings are practice classes for role play in interpreting.
Telling about the member of students in Interpreting class, there are twenty eight students, but in role play practice classes there are only twenty seven students. The data are the utterances produced during the interpreting practices made in the class. This research used data triangulation because the data are collected by observation, interview and document analysis.
The instrument of this research is the researcher also performed in the Interpreting class as the member of role play Interpreting. After that, the researcher gave the data to the five raters who are not from English students to give the score to every utterances spoke by the interpreters then the researcher will give the final score and make conclusions.There are some qualifications of rater : (1) Bahasa native speaker, (2) A person that is not from English Department but understand English a little bit, (3) IAIN Surakarta students especially in Tarbiyah Faculty. From the qualifications above, the researcher find five students in IAIN Surakarta to be a rater. Thus, the researcher found five students in Tarbiyah Faculty of IAIN Surakarta to be the rater. Finding and Discussiona. The data observationRole play interpreting classes are in the twelfth until fourteenth meetings There are twenty eight students divided into nine groups. In a group there are three students, but there is a group that has four students.
The distribution of the members of group are depend on lottery. But, in the end of practice class, a student did not present into class, so there are three students in each group. The members of group and theme of script distributed a week before the performance. Every group has to find or write a script and then post the script in Interpreting facebook’s group. After a week, the Interpreting class discuss about the distribution of the script.
The students and lecturer are agreed to have a role play in the next week because the students do not ready to make a performance after the distribution of the script. Thus, the performance started in thirteenth meeting and fourteenth meeting. In the first day, there are four groups that have to perform. In the next day or second day, there are five groups that have to perform.
The data use role play Interpreting in the first day. The order of performance is depend on lottery. The distribution of scripts and performances are following below:Table 1. The Script OutlineDateGroupsMembers of GroupThemeThursday,June 15th 20174th group1. HandokoSaputro2. Wulandari3. ApsariHealth3rd group1. Miftahul Huda2.
Salsabila Firdausi3. Aya NovaMurder Case8th group1. Aria EkaBuana2.
Anisa SeptiaDewi3. RezaCareer5th group1. Rizki Fatimah2. Agus Nur Shodiqin3. SuciGlobal Warming When the performances are running, the researcher documented the stages. The researcher need audio visual data because the research used qualitative approach.
Audio visual data helps the researcher to re-transcript the role play Interpreting. The data written in the table which are divided it per utterances. The data used for rater are when the speaker spoke English and the interpreter translate it into Bahasa. The table then given to five raters to give scores in every utterance. The data are fourty nine utterances from English into Bahasa. The criteria in giving scores are determined by the researcher and explains below:1.
Fidelity : in this aspect, there are two qualifications : completeness and accuracy. The two qualifications have different scoring system, it has explained below :Completeness : The Interpreter conveyed the messages from the speaker completely, no over translation, and not distort the meaning.Score 1 : Adequate, the interpreter has many lacks and not very good in conveying the messages, over in translating message and distorting lot of meanings.Score 2 : Good, the interpreter has some lacks in conveying the messages and not over in translating messages and some distorting meanings.Score 3 : Very good, the interpreter has conveying the messages from the speaker, not over in translating messages and no distorting meaning.Accuracy : The Interpreter conveyed the messages from the speaker accurately, has no distortion of meaning. Score 1 : Adequate, the interpreter has many lacks and not very good in conveying the messages, not accurate in translating the messages and lot of distorting meanings.
Score 2 : Good, the interpreter has some lacks in conveying the messages and good in translating messages, accurate, and some distorting meanings.Score 3 : Very good, the interpreter has conveying the messages from the speaker, accurate in translating messages and no distorting meaning.2.
Structure : the result of translation done by interpreter appropriate with the KBBI (Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia).Score 1 : Adequate, the interpreter has many lacks in Indonesia grammatical system.Score 2 : Good, the interpreter has some lacks in Indonesia grammatical system.Score 3 : Very good, the interpreter has conveying the messages grammatically very good.
3. Vocabulary : the result of translation done by the interpreter appropriate with the standard of Bahasa and consistent.Score 1 : Adequate, the interpreter has many lacks in consistency and use inappropriate standard of Bahasa.Score 2 : Good, the interpreter has some lacks in consistency and use some inappropriate standard of Bahasa.
Score 3 : Very good, the interpreter has consistency and use appropriate standard of Bahasa.4. Naturalness : Natural, means in conveying the messages the interpreter could make it flowing smooth, using appropriate style and register, clarity of voice, and very good in self-control.
Score 1 : Adequate, the interpreter has many lacks in the flow, clarity of voice, self control, and using inappropriate style.Score 2 : Good, the interpreter has some lacks in the flow, clarity of voice, self control, and using appropriate style.Score 3 : Very good, the interpreter has good aspect in the flow, clarity of voice, self control, and using inappropriate style. Here is the example of scoring that has done by the rater: Table 2.
Rater’s scoring tableThe SpeakerDialogueQuality FidelityStructureVocabularyNaturalnessGroup 4Theme : HealthSetting of Place : HospitalCompletenessAccuracyDoctoroo… first of all, you need to make sure that you eat the right food.33333InterpreterOke pertama-tama, kamu harus pastikan apa yang kamu makan itu adalah makanan yang sehatDoctorMm..you need to get a plenty of fruit and vegetable and aa..
would aa.. contain whole grain and protein and also vitamins.32233InterpreterKamu harus makan makan-makanan buah-buahan dan sayur-sayuran yang segar yang kaya atas.
.aa.. yang kaya akan protein dan juga serat.
Doctoraa.. you have to avoid much sugar and caffeine and it.32322InterpreterYou can aa..
menghindari makan-makanan yang banyak mengandung gula dan juga kafein. DoctorYou need to get exercise 30 minutes every day and if you smoke you have to stop as soon as possible. 33332Interpreteraa.. kamu butuh aa.. olah raga cukup setiap harinya selama 30 menit dan jika kamu aa..
merokok, kamu harus berhenti. Doctoraa.. actually it is not good for your body, but if your body need alcohol in emergency condition, you can consume it, consume it but don’t be over.33333Interpreteraa.
. sebenernya alkohol itu buruk buat kesehatan buat tubuh, tetapi jika kamu dalam keadaan darurat aa.. kamu boleh mengonsumsi tapi jangan terlalu berlebihan.
Then, the table below is the example of giving final score done by the researcher before making the conclusions :Table 3. Scoring of Structure QualityDatumRater 1Rater 2Rater 3Rater 4Rater 5TotalAverage1.33331132.62.23322122.43.
848.2232110249.23332132.6Total Average2.3 The MaterialThe material used for role play were from the student’s script. Every group has to find or write a script, it is free for them to make or find a script. A week before the performance, every group has to post the script in Interpreting facebook’s group. After a week, the Interpreting class discuss about the distribution of the script.
Students make an agreement through the lottery on who would present the script from others. The students and lecturer are agreed to have a role play in the next week because the students do not ready to make a performance after the distribution of the script. After a week, it was the performance day, the students had perform depend on who want to perform first.
The students have to bring the properties of role play. For example, in fourth group and the theme is health, HandokoSaputro acted as doctor brought a stethoscope to make him more like a doctor. Role play interpreting is performed in Language Laboratory IAIN Surakarta.
The MediaThe media used for role play is microphone, handycam and speaker. The microphone and speaker used to interview the students. Handycam used for recording the practices. The problem arises when the student that has act as interpreter feel burdensome when she or he has to translate the speaker from Bahasa into English and English into Bahasa (two ways interpreting). The interpreter loses of focus when handling two ways interpreting for the first time. Another problem is some groups memorize the whole script.
Thus, the role play interpreting looks less natural.b. The Students’ responseAfter the performance, the lecturer asked the interpreter of each group. The questions are (1) how the student feels as the interpreter, (2) how the group distributes the interpreter, Bahasa native speaker and English native speaker, and (3) what are the problems faced as the interpreter. Almost all the students answered about the question (1) is the students feel nervous because it was the first time they had to be interpreter. Question (2), the students answered that they distributed the role depended on their own focus. If student A wanted to be the interpreter, so she or he has to be the interpreter, and others. Question (3), the problems faced as the interpreter are they felt confused when they had to interpret in two ways (Bahasa into English and English into Bahasa).
c. The Data AnalysisLooking at the result, there is some techniques of scoring the data. Scoring techniques did by the raters by counting fidelity, consist of completeness and accuracy, structure, vocabulary and naturalness. The researcher made the final score and counting the average then giving the conclusion. The researcher has some criteria in giving the scores and for sufficient detail, it explains below:Explanation:Score 0 – 1 : Adequate- When the fidelity of interpreting includesboth the completeness and accuracy are under the target. It means that many of words, terminology, or statements are over even lost and influenced the accuracy of interpreting (distortion of meaning)- The structure of interpreting or many of the statement that interpreted by the interpreter are grammatically incorrect- There are no effectiveness and consistency in word choice and usage during the interpreting process- Too rigid in conveying the messages so make the flow, clarity of voice, and self-control sounds unnatural.
Score 1,1 – 2 : Good- The fidelity of interpreting includes both the completeness and accuracy are good enough to understand. It means that some of words, terminology, or statements are not over even lost and influenced the accuracy of interpreting (there are some distortion of meanings).- The structure of interpreting is grammatically correct.- There utterances are effective and consistent in word choice and usage during the interpreting process- The flow and clarity of voice are good and the self-control sounds natural.
Score 2,1 – 3 : Very Good- No over or under translation, and have no distortion of meaning in conveying the messages. – Grammatically correct- Effective and consistent in word choice and usage- Natural, means in conveying the messages the interpreter could make it flowing smooth, using appropriate style and register, clarity of voice, and very good in self-control.Table 4.
The result of Interpreting Quality AssessmentCriteria of QualityScoreExplanationFidelity2.37GoodStructure2.3GoodVocabulary2.
29GoodNaturalness2.27Good Looking at the result above, naturalness is in the lowest score with 2.27 and fidelity is in the highest score with 2.3. Thus, the quality of four interpreters in role play Interpreting class are : the fidelity of interpreting includes both the completeness and accuracy are good enough to understand.
It means that some of words, terminology, or statements are not over even lost and influenced the accuracy of interpreting (there are some distortion of meanings). The structure of interpreting is grammatically correct. There utterances are effective and consistent in word choice and usage during the interpreting process The flow and clarity of voice are good and the self-control sounds natural.
ConclusionLooking at the analysis above, the researchers can sum up that the students are mostly can handle the interpreting process. The result of every aspect in quality of interpreting are good.. Although, some students have a shortage in naturalness, but they have excess in fidelity.
Some students also have good and consistent vocabulary during the interpreting process but have problem in naturalness proved by the lowest scores that the aspect of naturalness has than the other aspects. Hopefully, role play in Interpreting class can increase the ability of interpreting especially for students in Translation major. Thus, the researcher hopes there will be another methods in teaching interpreting to make students more well-grounded.