Adam ZhangMs. TannerCHC2D 22 January 17Civilian Life in Canada During International ConflictsCivilian life in Canada is affected positively and negatively because of Canada’s contribution to international conflicts. There are three major conflicts that Canada has engaged in World War 1 (WW1) from 1914 to 1918, World War 2 (WW2) from 1939 to 1945, and the Afghanistan War from 2001 to 2014. These conflicts have resulted in an increase in Canada’s economy but at what cost? This essay focuses on getting a better understanding of how life in Canada was affected. During WW1 in Canada, The Government of Canada placed a significant amount of stress on the nation’s activities such as wages and prices. Voluntarism and patriotic spirit increased during World War 1’s outbreak but diminished soon after. The government of Canada then decided to have conscription (mandatory military service) in 1917 as well as corporate and personal taxation, the prohibition of alcohol, censorship, and propaganda. The control of sensitive military information during Wartime was necessary.
However, the Canadian government’s role in information management went beyond just surveilling and editing soldiers’ letters from the front. An official sensor in Canada monitors the newspaper and other publications that have material that might harm the war effort. Federal officials also threatened editors and publishers with jail time if they failed to comply with their warnings. Large-scale propaganda campaign becomes a part of everyday life in Canada.
The posters asked for civilians to enlist to the Canadian Armed Forces and other forms of war support and requested Canadian citizens to contribute charitable campaigns, purchase Victory Bonds, or ration items such as meat or fuel. Posters had patriotic symbols, recognizable icons, and historical figures to help citizens identify the war with significant and worthy causes. Public parades, rallies, and charitable events encouraged further voluntary contributions and shamed these people who did not. At the end of WW1, out of the 630,000 men and women who have served in the Canadian Armed Forces. 60,661, fully aware of the immediate danger of the missions have gallantly offered their own life, and 172,000 Canadian armed forces members were wounded.
When these Canadian Armed Forces members Returned home, many of them have become shell-shocked, and poorly understood at the time and the many years that followed. The crying, fear, paralysis, or insanity that particular trench soldiers were exposed to during the stresses and horrors during trench life. The mental help that these soldiers needed became excused due to the brain damage caused by the shock of exploding shells. Military authorities would look for symptoms of Shellshock in soldiers by expressions of cowardliness or lack of moral character. However, Shellshock was not fully understood during WW1 and therefore, not treated efficiently. Doctors have diagnosed 10,000 Canadians during World War 1. These treatments range from the soft to the cruel. More gentle therapies included Freudian techniques of talk and physical therapy which helped many Canadian soldiers recover, while more extreme methods of treating shell-shocked soldiers involved electrical shock therapy.
During shock therapy, the patients got electrocuted in the hope of stimulating paralyzed nerves, vocal chords, or limbs. Electrical Shock Therapy was more effective than Freudian techniques regarding returning soldiers to the front, with around two-thirds of all patients having to return to the front. It is, however, unknown how many patients relapsed when they re-entered combat. Doctors knew very little of shell shock or what is today referred to as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and there were only a few treatment programs after World War 1 for returning Canadian veterans who have suffered from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) caused by war. Causing one Canadian soldier named Charles Campbell killed himself on January 20th, 1919 in the residency of Brockville, Ontario because he was suffering from PTSD and was not getting the proper treatment that he needed. However, Charles Campbell was not the only Canadian soldier that residency in Brockville, Ontario had seen take their own life that year. Others soldiers included Ross Puttilo, Alexander Fowler, William Bailey, and William Dowier. Their deaths remind us that even today in the present that suicides in the Canadian Armed Forces are part of a longer historical trajectory of soldier suicide.
The outbreak of World War 2 has brought the nation out of The Great Depression. From 1939, an increase of demand in Europe for materials from Canada and increased spending by the Government of Canada has resulted in a healthy boost to Canada’s economy. Men who were unemployed could enlist in the Canadian military and make a salary while serving their country. By 1939, Canada was in the first prosperity period in the business cycle in an entire decade. Occurring at the same time with the recovery of the American economy, which has created a better market for exports and a fresh new inflow of capital. War production in Canada started to ramp up quickly and managed by the Department of Munitions and Supply. Employment levels rose, and everyone in Canada had a job. Canada became one of the most prominent trainers of pilots for the Allies through the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.
Many men joined the war effort, and because of that, overseas and industries began pushing to increase their production rate. Women, on the other hand, took positions to aid in the war effort. The hiring of man became banned later in World War 1 through measures taken under the National Resources Mobilization Act. Shipyards and repair facilities have expanded over a thousand warships, and cargo vessels were built, including thousands of auxiliary craft, small boats, and others. Canada has also grown on its food production, but much of the food was shipped to Britain: so much that food rationing had to become imposed. In 1942, Canada sent Britain twenty-five percent of Canada’s meat production (including 75% bacon), 65% of the cheese and 13% of the eggs. Canadian women had a huge role in World War 2 as they urged appeals to do make-do’s recycle and salvage so that they could have the needed supplies.
Canadian women have also saved fats and grease, gathered recycle goods, handed out information that explains how to get the most out of your recycled products and organized many events on how to lower the amount of waste. Volunteer organizations that were led by women have also prepared packages for Canadian soldiers overseas or prisoner of war in Axis-controlled territories. World War 2 opened up many job opportunities in the workforce and hired women as well because, without them, Canada’s economy would collapse. By fall 1944 the number of women working full time in Canada’s paid labor was doubled of what it was in 1939, and the figure between 1 million and 1.2 million did not include part-time workers or women working on farms.
Canadian women had to take on their rigorous labor work while still being able to find the time to make jam, clothing and other acts of voluntarism to aid Canadian soldiers overseas. Over the course of World War 2, more than 1.1 million Canadians served in the military. More than 44,000 offered their lives in the face of duty, and 54,000 wounded in action.
During battles in World War 2, it was widespread for Canadian soldiers would get shell-shocked during combat; this is due because World War 2 uses a bigger field of weapons and bombs, which puts soldiers at high risk for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Additionally, Soldiers were placed in smaller groups, meaning that soldiers had reduced social interactions which may be another protective factor for psychological afflictions. Indeed, World War 2 took a huge mental toll on Canadian soldiers. Some soldiers even got shell-shocked during combat, so medial officers have adapted to what is now known today as PIE principles of proximity, immediacy, and expectancy. Soldiers who show symptoms of shell shock became immediately treated inside the war zone. Medical officers also stressed to the patients that they are expected to return to combat after their treatment, Making World War 2 extremely beneficial for Canada’s economy but was devastating for loss of human life as World War 2 was the bloodiest conflict not just in Canada, but around the world.Canada’s participation in the Afghanistan War started after Al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four airliners and used them to attack New York and Washington, DC on September 11th, 2001, killing almost 3,000 people in the process which includes 24 Canadians, and shocked not just Americans and Canadians, but around the world. A few days after the attacks of 9/11 Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien called United States president George W.
Bush to pledge “Canada’s complete support” for the Americans. Meaning that Canada would take part US-led multinational campaign to invade Afghanistan, capture members of al-Qaeda, dismantle their training camps and overthrow the Taliban government. Canada’s campaign will involve sea, air, and land forces and as well as civilian diplomatic and intelligence resources. During the Afghanistan War, more than 40,000 Canadian Armed Forces members served in Afghanistan. The war has taken the lives of 158 Canadian soldiers and wounded 1,800 others. Seven Canadian Civilians also killed – a diplomat, four aid workers, a government contractor and a journalist. Making the casualty list to expand not just soldiers that have died, but civilians as well.
After the Afghanistan War, Canada spent a staggering 18 billion dollars fighting in Afghanistan War and as well as trying to rebuild Afghanistan for the damages during the Afghanistan War. During 2001 to 2014, the Medical staff has a much better understanding Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and how to treat it when. The Canadian Forces uses the term, “Operational Stress Injury,” which is a catchall phrase that describes “any persistent psychological difficulty including anxiety depression and post-traumatic stress disorder” related to military service. Canadian soldier serving in Afghanistan also have to routinely undergo “third-location decompression” before they are allowed to return to Canada. Soldiers first were sent to Cyprus for R&R, where they also attend sessions on stress, anger and suicide management. The Canadian Forces also offers counseling programs for the families of war veterans.
Veterans are expected to answer specific questions and take health exams for up to six months. Counselling was also available through Operational Stress Injury Social Support, which is a peer support network with locations across Canada. Allowing Canadian soldier with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder to get the right treatment that they need and not having to deal with embarrassment.
This essay has talked revealed several unknown factors that have changed the way the civilians in Canada were living. Canada contributing to international conflicts may be giving its economy it little boost, The loss of life during these battles and how poorly Post Traumatic Stress Disorder understood during World War 1 and World War 2. Making a Canadian veterans life a nightmare and can even go as far as to take his or her own life.
Therefore causing Civilian life in Canada to be affected both positively and negatively because of Canada’s contribution to international conflicts.