ADVANTAGES heating and cooling systems have few moving

ADVANTAGES OF GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

Efficiency:  energy
efficiency ratio of geothermal ventilation system compare to electrical heating
at different temperature (°C) like 32.2, 37.7, 43.3 is 17 and 10.5, 9, 8,
respectively(Choudhury,
2013).

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Reliability and safety: Geothermal heating and cooling
systems have few moving parts, so they are highly reliable.There is no risk of
vandalism.Geothermal heating systems can last far longer than most heating
systems up to 25-50 years. It will also eliminate the risk of carbon monoxide
poisoning associated with natural gas heating and hot water. The risk of fires
is also much lower than in an animal house equipped with a gas furnace and/or
gas water heater.

Flexibility and convenience: Geothermal heat pumps can be set up
to supply hot water as well as space heating and cooling. In some cases, the
hot water comes at no additional energy cost.Geothermal heating and cooling
systems create no noise outside the home, and almost no noise inside either
(Choudhury, 2013).

Renewable energy: Geothermal is a renewable source of
energy for heating, cooling, and air conditioning. There is no pollution caused
and no any adverse effects on flora or fauna.Geothermal heating and cooling
systems do not contribute to global warming (Choudhury, 2013).

Financial: Although geothermal systems can cost several
times what a conventional system costs, payback can be within 2-10 years
according to some estimates. This system is more economical as compared to heating
ventilation and air cooling (HVAC) system (Choudhury, 2013).

 

DISADVANTAGESOF GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

1.      Expensive: These systems are very expensive to install.

2.      Installation disturbance:  During the time of installation trenching is
required for loop establishment it will disturb the land structure. In case of
horizontal loop system disruption of landscape is seen.

3.      Environmental disadvantages of
geothermal systems using direct exchange (DX): Use of copper pipes to circulate the refrigerant, and
copper pipes buried under ground can easily corrode over time, leading to leaks
that are hard to locate and almost impossible to fix (GEEH, 2016).

                            

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

The environmental effects of geothermal development
and power changes in land use associated with exploration andplant
construction, noise and sight pollution, thedischarge of water and gases, the
production of foulodor, and soil subsidence. Most of those effects,however, can
be mitigated with current technology sothat geothermal uses have no more than a
minimalimpact on the environment. For example, KlamathFalls, Oregon, has
approximately 600 geothermal wellsfor residential space heating

In addition, GHPs have a very minimal effect on the
environment, because they make use ofshallow geothermal resources within 100 meters
(about 330 feet) of the surface. GHPscause only small temperature changes to
the groundwater or rocks and soil in the ground (EB, 2017).

Geothermal HVAC Myths Busted

There
are many myths about the geothermal ventilation system like geothermal energy
is just experimental and can’t be used widely. Geothermal resources are
nonrenewable. Extraction and injection of geothermal brines will contaminates
the drinking water. Geothermal ventilation development will disturbs the land features.
Geothermal ventilation is applicable only in temperate region of earth.
Geothermal ventilation system can’t cool the home it will only heat the room(Egg,2013).

Morrison
and Ahmed, (2010) reported myth about GHPS that the technology is too
expensive. The technology doesn’t work in India. Geothermal HVAC requires
geothermal energy to operate.

 

 

Geothermal system in different animal house

Shah,
et al.,(2017) found that earth-to-water heat exchanger(EWHE) pens were
slightly warmer than the Control pens cooled with stir fans and sprinklers in
very hot days, pig performance in the EWHE pens was unaffected. The EWHE
reduced the electricity use by >50 per cent and eliminated the sprinkling
water use. EWHE is sustainable and cost effective for high value pig and
greenhouse in any part of the world.

Kankariya
Zoo, Ahmedabad has initiated a project to develop a nocturnal animal house with
the geothermal ventilation system for providing a fresh air at ideal temperature
which is good for the under danger wild animal species (IE, 2017).

Geothermal
cooling system potentially reduces the cost of energy about 28 per cent as
compared to conventional heating system. Geothermal ventilation suppresses the
emissions of (NH3, H2S, SO2) and also the risk
of microbial contaminant into the animal house environment. It has no any
negative impact on the growth performance of the growing pigs.(Bostami et
al. 2016). They further suggested that, geothermal system was more
effective in maintenance ofinternal house temperature compared to ground
channel; whereas, ground channel system was more effective in savingenergy
consumption and reducing CO2 emissions. Thus, on a broader view,
geothermal andground channel system can contribute to the global energycrisis
and global gas emissions reduction through potentialsaving of energy consumption
and reduction of CO2 and odorous gas emissions (Bostami et al.
2016).  

Islam,
(2016) found that the CSGHP system has the potential to reduce electricity use,
overall cost and CO and noxious gas emissions. Therefore, the CSGHP system has
the potential for use as an environmentally friendly renewable energy source
for animal houses.

Copenhagen
Zoo had conducted a project for preliminary study of geothermal ventilation
system for their zoo animals and birds. They have done project for penguin
exhibition and they have save about 142 MWh energy per year (Hestmark et
al., 2015).

            Use of a modular housing with GHE may be more effective for heat-intensive
piglet production. The investment costs are higher than in comparable
conventional livestock buildings. The modular housing with integrated GHE is
assessed as positive from energy and environmental point of view for pig houses
where high indoor temperatures are required on a year-round basis(Krommweh et
al., 2014).

Predicala
et al., (2014) conducted an experiment on swine barn and found that
geothermal ventilation system is more significant than the convention gas fired
heater, GSHP room was cooler during the warm months there were no considerable
difference between two rooms during cold months. Methane and Nitrous Oxide
concentrations were lower in GSHP room compare to conventional ventilation
system. With the geothermal ventilation system no any type of adverse effect on
pig’s average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency.

Geothermal
ventilation loop have multiple use for example in Oregon zoo they had develop a
multilateral ground loop which provide a cool environment to bear and warm
environment for elephants (OZ, 2014).

A
study conducted at Chumathang, Himachal Pradesh, to know the energy cost per
unit exergy for parallel combination of a phase change system with a heating
system. At low flow rate and -5°(C) ambient temperature
cost per unit exergy were 0.32 and 0.69 (USD MJ-1 hr-1),
respectively (Chauhan, 2013).

Stein, (2013) reported that
University of Missouri, has developed a geothermal energy system for a large
turkey farm in that state. The project has been jointly funded by the US
Department of Energy as a demonstration project in partnership with the farm’s
owner. The system is being used both for brooding and grow-out. The project
team estimates that they will save on energy costs between 50 and 70 per cent.

It
has been concluded that a GHP system couldincrease the production performance
of broiler chicksdue to increased inside air quality of the broiler house.The
GHP system had lower CO2 and NH3 emissionswith lower
energy cost than the conventional heatingsystem for broiler chickens (Choiet
al.,2012).

            Jacobson, (2012) suggested that
there are cooling alternatives to the traditional evaporative systems used in
pig facilities in the Midwestern USA and other pig growing areas of the world
that could result in reduced energy and emissions per pound of pork produced
while still being economically viable. A geothermal system was evaluated as one
possible method to provide cooling for pig buildings that could provide an
effective and economicapproach to cooling pig facilities.

            In a
comparative study between the ground source heat pump(GSHP) heating and cooling
system, coal fired heating system(CFH), wet curtain fan cooling system(WCFC),
air conditioning found that initial investment of GSHP heating and cooling
system was higher than that of the CFH system integrated with WCFC system, the
relative operating cost of GSHP, CFH and AC was 0.94, 1.00, 0.98, respectively
(Wang et. al., 2012).

In
a case study of poultry farm in Syria came to a conclusion that coefficient of
performance of GSHP for heating and cooling were 6.2 and 10 respectively, while
corresponding values of ASHP were 4 and 4.3 only.  Also found that annual cost of GSHP is
reduced up to 38 per cent, 69.2 per cent, and 79.7 per cent as compared to
ASHP, coal heater combined with ASHP and diesel heater combined with ASHP,
respectively (Mohamad, 2012)

 

CONCLUSION

In recent era of energy crisis geothermal ventilation
system is a good alternative. Geothermal ventilation will reduce the greenhouse
effect by reducing the production of greenhouse gases like CFC and HCFC etc.
Geothermal ventilation reduces the emission of harmful gasses and also risk of
microbial contamination into the farm shed.Geothermal ventilation provides natural
air with improved quality which is favourable to maintain animal growth and
health. It is efficient, safe, flexible source of renewable energy.Geothermal
ventilation system is best alternative to create favourable microclimatic
condition in animal house during adverse climate.