Ag Landscape Management 2340

   What are some factors to reduce pesticide risks? 
  – Banning or deregulation of most toxic products-Regulation and appropriate use of registered products-Using the least toxic, yet effective products-reduce pesticide use-Ablility to measure pesticide risk 
   Differentiate between Organic and Conventional Pesticide use
 -Organic: pesticides derived from natural sources.

  • Pesticides permitted for use in agricultural systems
  • Botanical, mineral, microbial  

-Conventional: Synthetic

  • synthetic origin of natural resources or “man-made” chemical classes
  • not permitted in organic systems. 

    What is safer? a) Caffeineb) Insecticide 
    a) Caffeine
   How do we measure Acute Toxicity? 
   LD50 = the dose of the compound needed to cause the death in 50% of the test population.

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  The lower the LD50 the more toxic the compound

Which is safer ?  Rotenone (natural insecticide) or DDT (synthetic insecticide)
LD50 Values Rotetone: 132mg/kgDDT: 113 mg/kg 
    What is the environmental impact quotient?          
   A method to measure the environmental impact of pesticides
    How are environmental impacts assecced? 
 EIQ= Environmental Impact Quotient(used to rank the relative impact of a given pestcide) Afunction of farm worker, consumer and ecological risks. EIQ is a per unit mass rating of the relative impact of a pesticide-Calculated from MSDS values for toxicity to fish mammals, pollinator, half life, systemicity, etc. EIQ= (farmworker risk + consumer risk + ecological risk)/3
    Farm worker risk= C[DT*5) + (DT*P)]  What does this equation represent? 
 -Chronic toxicity x Applicator exposure plus picker exposure.  

  • C= Chronic toxicity C
  • DT= Dermal toxicity 
  • P= plant surface 1/3 life.

     

   Consumer Risk = [C ((S+P))/2 * SY) + (L) ]  What does this equation represent?
  

  • Consumer exposure potential + leaching potential)
  • Consumer exposure = chronic toxicity (C) 
  • x Average for residue  potential in soil (S) and plant Surfaces (P)  x Systematic potential rating (SY) of the pesticide
  • Leaching Potential(L) = potential groundwater effects. 

    What are the max and min values of EIQ?
  Lower thr EIQ,the lower theimpact.   Min EIQ= 6.7 Max= 225 Higher the EIQ FUR indicates more impact / app.

 EIQ=EIQ x % Active Ingredient x rate

  Comparison of pesticides 
   Assessment of Environmental impact of different pesticides in order to select least toxic product for use 
  Comparison of pest management strategies 
  Assessemt pf enviromental impact of different pest management strategies
  Soybean Aphid-  Aphis Glycines
 

  • Invase Species from Asia
  • Discovered in North America in 2000
  • 50% Yeild Losses without pesticides
  • Organic and conventional solutions needed

   What conditions is spray needed to combat aphids? a)Low Aphids, low natural enemiesb) High Aphids, low natural enemiesc) High Aphids, high natural enemies
  High Aphids Low natural Enemies 
  Natural Enemies- Lab Assays What is the most harmful pesticide to Aphelinus wasps?
  Matador is the most harmful to Aphelinus wasps
  Feild Selectivity  Aphids vs. Natural Enemies. 
  Movento has highest selective index Lagon, Superior oil andBotanigard are the least selective. 
  Beleaf vs Monvento  
 Both show promise as reduced-risk products or SBA control
   Superior and Botangigard (organic) negative or positive impact? 
  -Similar or greater negative impact on several neutral enemy species-Limited efficiencies- High EIQFURs
  What are some ways we can reduce therisk of pesticides ?
  – Ban or deregulate most toxic products-Regulation and appropriate use of registered products-Reduction of pesticide use

  • Non-chemical methods; integrated pest management, dynamic action thresholds

– Use of least impactful, effective products

   A take home message for the lovely people in the world(and the hippies) :
 -Don’t Assume that because it’s natural, it’s safe or ‘good’ -Users need information on environmental impact of available pesticides 

  • Growers + homeoweners
  • EIQ

– Use pesticides and products with least environmental impact, regardless of origin.