seismic sea waves caused by an undersea or near-shore earthquake
dormant, quiescent sections of otherwise active fault zones
implications of seismic gaps
represent “locked” sections of faults along which normal slipping is prevented.
.. often represent spots of future, serious earthquakes
things that happen or rock properties that change prior to an earthquake
because earthquake predicting is not a refined science yet, the US tends to rely more on ____
the earthquake cycle
the idea that major earthquakes occur at more or less regular intervals and follow a cycle along a fault segment that includes a period of stress buildup, sudden fault rupture in a major earthquake, a period of aftershocks, then another extended period of stress buildup
magma is typically generated at what 3 plate-tectonic settings?
at divergent plate boundaries (ocean ridges and continental rift zones), over subduction zones, at ‘hot spots’
isolated areas of volcanic activity that are not associated with current plate boundaries
magma that is rich in iron and magnesium is referred to as ___. silica-rich magma is referred to as ___.
__ forms new sea floor and is caused
what kind of magma is more explosive?
silica-rich (felsic) because it tends to trap gases — whereas mafic tends to let gases flow through
The Pacific “ring of fire” is so seismically/volcanically active because ..?
it is a ring of subduction zones
Kilimanjaro is associated with ____ zones
volcanic rock is ___ rock formed where?
igneous rock formed at or near the earth’s surface
most volcanic rock is created by ____.
seafloor spreading ridges
the eruption of magma out of a crack in the lithosphere, rather than from a single pipe or vent… happens at spreading ridges
mafic basaltic lavas build volcanoes that are flat and low in relation to their diameter… this is called
the hawaiian volcanoes are ___ volcanoes
rhyolitic and andesitic lavas tend to build __ ]because of their thick, viscous nature. example of one of these?
volcanic domes – mt.
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bits of violently erupted volcanic material
when pyroclastics fall close to the place where they fell near the mouth of the volcano, these form
blobs of liquid lava that are thrown from a volcano during an eruption
volcanoes that erupt some pyroclastics, then some lava, then more pyroclastics, and so on are called ____ because they are built up of varying layers.
composite volcanoes or stratovolcanoes
the cascade range in the western US, including my. st.
helens are ___ volcanoes
How did the Icelandic island of Heimaey fight back against it’s volcanic eruption?
they ran metal pipes with cool water in front of the lava flow so that the lava cooled and solidified and thus stopped further flow
volcanic “mud” formed by the combination of volcanic ash with water
denser-than-air mixture of hot gases and fine ash forms a hot ____, AKA ____.
pyroclastic flow – nuees ardentes
when large quantities of water (often seawater on volcanic islands) seep down into the rock and are heated to steam by the hot magma, and then burst forth out of the volcano
most famous phreatic explosion
Krakatoa in Indonesia (1883)
3 categories of volcanoes based on their activity
active, dormant, or extinct
an enlarged volcanic summit crater, which may be formed by either an explosion enlarging an existing crater or by collapse of a volcano after a magma chamber within has emptied
biofuels are primarily made from ____
pros of ethanol use
lessens dependence on oil, good for the economy (creates jobs), renewable resource, cleaner burning, disaggregated (not as many middlemen)
cons of ethanol use
instability (“bad years” for corn), land pressure (soil erosion, deforestation), water needs, price, crop displacement (everyone can’t grow corn), transformational costs (turning corn into ethanol), more ethanol per mile needed than gas
2 other ways to make ehtanol (than corn)
algae, sugar cane, cellulosic material (“throw away” parts of plants)
the ultimate source of energy is?
7 types of “raw energy”
wind, biofuel, hydropower, fossil fuels, geothermal power, tidal power, solar power
4 types of consumed energy
electricity, heat, gas, oil
4 types of used energy
plastic from petroleum, light, transportation, work
___ is the country that uses the most energy. ____ is the country that uses the most energy per capita.
US, United Arab Emerates
the total oil in the world is about ____ barrels.
The total recoverable oil is about ____ barrels. The proven oil is about ____ barrels. Already consumed ___ barrels.
we have about ___ years left of oil at this point and this consumption
why is natural gas being favored over oil and coal? how much of our total energy is natural gas?
it releases less CO2 – 25%
___ is made up of large accumulations of terrestrial plant material (lignin) buried into the waterlogged soil. The organic remains then gradually turn into ___, porous brown organic material, which contains about __% carbon
.. peat .
peat, lignite, bituminous, and anthracite coal have increasing/decreasing carbon contents in that order
increasing (peat is about 50%, anthracite about 90%)
What country has the largest coal reserves?
What area has the largest oil reserves?
the fuel in oil shale is ____, which is organic materials in various stages of degradation. How is oil shale produced?
kerogen — must first be crushed then heated to distill out the hydrocarbons, which can then be refined to crude oil
___ are sedimentary rock containing a very thick, semi-solid, tar-like petroleum.
the oil reserves in the ANWR give us about how much oil in the US? (Barrels and time)
3.2 Billion barrels — 1 year
ways to conserve energy
good lightbulbs, insulation, eliminating “standby” of electronics, transportation efficiency, etc
solar energy, in general, is about __% efficient
types of biomass
wood, compressed organics, peat, ethanol, biofuel
how is wind power proportional to velocity?
power is the cube of velocity (double wind speed, 8x as much power)
UV_ makes vitamin D. UV_ is considered the most damaging. UV_ is entirely absorbed before it reaches earth.
A, B, C
strength of UV radiation is directly related to ____.
Earth’s average albedo
climate change is due to shifting of energy into its ___ expression and thereby changing the _____ balance.
in general, it gets colder as we move further into the atmosphere away from the earth’s surface with the exception of the _____. this is becaus?
thermosphere – because it absorbs UVC
deserts are created at about 30 degrees N&S latitudes due to _____
Hadley cells – trap air low against the earth
how does the ITCZ create a positive feedback system?
Itertropical Convergence Zone – low pressure heats up air and causes it to expand and rise, this creates a vacuum that pulls air in from the side and back out the top
energy that is released by the earth to the atmosphere
the greenhouse effect is created by ___ energy
terrestrial — lets light through but traps heat
large convection currents that distribute heat globally
high/low pressure = rising air
areas of frequent low/high pressure tend to get the most rain
hurricane-force winds at the top of the troposphere that circle the earth
regular seasonal winds and rain
wherever the sun shines most/least brightly is where the strongest convection currents, rainfall, and storms are
cold air displaces warmer air and moves under it – generates strong convection currents and thus strong storms
which is caused by the coriolis effect: hurricanes or tornadoes?
how do we get knowledge about climate patterns throughout history
glacial ice cores
periodic changes in the earths orbit and tilt – cause dramatic climate swings
___ happens every 3-5 years when ocean temperatures rise.
___ happens in the intervening years
el nino, la nina
el nino southern oscillation – overall cycle of el nino and la nina
effect of el nino in US
dryer areas tend to get more rain, wetter areas are dryer
5 greenhouse gases
CO2, CH4, CFCs, N2O and SF6
global warming pros
more CO2 helps plants fluorish, warmer temps = longer growing seasons, stronger storms = less drought
global warming cons
increase in sea level (more floods), stronger storms/hurricanes, increase in infectious disease due to more bugs, release of methane hydrate from melting permafrost
Carbon enrichment studies – FACE
free air carbon enrichment – plants do better with more carbon
reducing output of GHGs
natural gas instead of coal, promote energy efficiency, raise gas taxes, nuclear power, wind energy
carbon management strategies
plant trees, phytoplankton, crop rotation, collect methane for energy, reduce soot emissions, pump CO2 into deep oceans
energy sources that formed from the remains of once-living organisms
5 fossil fuels
oil, natural gas, coal, oil shale, tar sand
most common natural gas
fossil fuels take at least ___ years to form and are thus nonrenewable
accumulations of fossil fuels that can be gotten with current technology
fossil fuels are really only found in land that is made up of ___ rock
primary oil recovery
recovery using no technology other than drilling
secondary oil recovery
pumping in water to fill pore spaces and buoy up the oil by increasing pressure
between primary and secondary recovery, we are able to recover about how much of the oil in a given well?
alternatives natural gas sources
coal-bed methane (methane gas produced by coal formation), geopressurized zones (deep in the earth, increased temp and pressure change oil to gas that is absorbed into the underground water), methane hydrates (crystalline solids of gas and water molecules found in the arctic and oceans)
pattern of US energy consumption
flattened in 70s and 80s, rose in 90s, flattening again
___ is an energy source formed from the remains of land plants
hard/soft coal has highest carbon content and is thus most desirable as fuel
environmental impact of coal – produces ___ when burned
CO2 — also releases sulfur which can cause acid rain
what is the most commonly used ion for fission
most uranium is found in ___ rock
a material that slows neutrons running through the core of a nuclear reactor enough that a chain reaction can be sustained
moderator — US is water, Chernobyl was graphite
___ is the process by which the sun makes energy
gasohol and it’s limitations
90% gas, 10% alcohol — normal cars can’t run on greater than 10% alcohol