Air Issues

Primary Pollutant
harmful chemicals released directly into the atmosphere..

.ex: SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, hydrocarbons, SPM

Secondary pollutant
harmful chemicals that form from the reaction of other substances released into the atmosphere..ex: tropospheric ozone, sulfur dioxide
SPM
suspended particulate matter.

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.ex: dust, asbestos, pollen

Main two gases in atmosphere
Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%)
Layers in the atmosphere-in order-lowest to highest
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
industrial smog
gray-smog, more pollutants from industry
photochemical smog
yellow/brown smog, smog formed with the reaction of a pollutant with UV rays, example…ground level ozone
SO2
sulfur dioxide
CO
carbon monoxide
CO2
carbon dioxide
NOx
nitrogen oxide (NO2-Nitrogen Dioxide)
stratospheric ozone
good ozone-protects from UV rays
tropospheric ozone
bad ozone- reactive- component of photochemical smog
why is rain naturally acid?
the reaction of carbon dioxide and water forms carbonic acid, which makes the rain slightly acidic.
List 3 problems of acid rain?
check your notes.

..there are many

electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers, fabric filters
technologies helping to remove particulate matter and harmful compounds from coal burning plants
health problems from acid deposition
respiratory issues, emphysema, bronchitis
layer of atmosphere where most UV rays are absorbed
stratosphere
lapse rate
shows temperature rate change in the troposphere
CFCs
chloroflurocarbons, once used in aerosol cans, coolants in refrigerators air conditioners..one of the chemicals causing ozone depletion
Montreal Protocol
multinational agreement to ban the use of CFCs, cutting back the impact of ozone depletion
Factors effecting regional acid deposition
industry location, local geology and wind/weather patterns.

Examples of indoor air pollutant
carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke, radon, formaldehyde
Examples of Hydrocarbons
methane, benzene, gasoline, waxes (paraffin)
temperature inversion
layer of cold air is trapped under warm air above and can cause a build up in air pollution (smog)
United States Clean Air Act
(Control Act in 1955, then clean air-in 1970,has been amended several times)- regulates -sets limits on on air pollutants.
Order of UV rays -most dangerous to least dangerous
UVc, UVb, UVa
Three primary pollutants that cause acid deposition (include source)
SO2: coal burning; CO2: combustion/burning fossil fuels; NOX: combustion-esp car exhaust
Name a primary pollutant that contributes to bad ozone formation. How?
NOx…car exhaust, NOx reacts with UV rays…end result…tropospheric O3