Michel Foucault Theory Mental Models- not open-minded
History is told by the winners and powerful groups Ways that we understand the world- they help us understand/focus on things, but they can also be limiting b/c we have assumptions
explicit or implicit rules governing what is acceptable and unacceptable in a group/society
Normative Framework of Forestry
represents common needs of forestry development in a particular context and reflects the knowledge and understanding of forest management of individuals who are in the forestry sector with their needs, power, and social status
Examples of Norms
Norms of how science is done our assumptions underlie science, economy, opinions
Wood that is prepared for building construction and carpentry It’s flexible and good for Earthquakes
Common types of timber and their characteristics:Redwood, Cedar, Oak
Americans use 27% of commercially harvested (wood that is cut) in the world Collins pine- 1941 1.5 Billion board feet (1 ft tall, 1 ft wide, 1 inch thick) 2001-1.5 billion board feet AND sold 2 billion board feet
why is there more timber now? growth is 1.5-2 times more than harvest rate-> forest getting denser
more people do less harvesting, reduced mill amount, more people think forests should be preserved for their value, recreation value CA produced 25% of wood that was consumed in CA, other 75% is from Washingtion, Oregon, and Canada took 4 billion board feet to replace in Hurricane Katrina
Why does CA have more forest fires?
general reasons= lack of blizzards, never gets too freezing/cold, things grow in the winter Main cause= in May, temperature gets hot with not rainfall, so things catch on fire
An area with a high density of trees why forests are here and not there
Forests Throughout Time
Mideval times= agroforests, needed shrubs/grasses, farming Forest started getting militarized, bring forest under control of King/ Monarchy, villages had to move outForest associated with crown, royalty, recreation, show off forest 18th Century-Sylva-> art of growing trees, recreation to grow trees-> England 1755- Restoration of trees using Slyvaculture Robin Hood- king at time didn’t know aout ppl needs, so he lived in forest + used robbery/poaching to help ppl; take back forest for people
U.S. Stance of Forests
Believes that it’s gov’t responsibility to protect the forests;Gov’t, state.
Called public forest even though property of state governments Gov’t still owns wildlife to protect it + common good;humans + natural systems are coupled, more trees in Yosemite today;
Ostrom Reading-tragedy of commons
many people use a scarce resource
Common pool resource
characterized by difficulty of preventing groups from using and that they’re limited in supply include: fisheries, forests, irrigation systems, and grazing areas Ostrom says each model doesn’t connect to reality
Right that allows the use of property that belongs to another. The owner of land that bounds or contains a natural water channel hasis an example
Axelrod, Rtwo individuals acting in their own best interest pursue a course of action that does not result in the ideal outcome. both parties choose to protect themselves at the expense of the other participant. As a result of following a purely logical thought process to help oneself, both participants find themselves in a worse state than if they had cooperated with each other in the decision-making process.
However, in the model, the prisoners may not communicate with each other—“information” that they need is not available.
Best way to solve tragedy of commons?
everyone taking an equal amount
Open Access Resource
When a resource is open to all, no control John Muir said first person to get to the Sierra gets the land
Logic of Collective Action
Originally it was thought that if everyone in the group would benefit, people would work together in a groupOlson criticizes this conceptfreeways-drive safely, but there are freeriders who go in the carpool land even though they’re aloneGroups can’t work together for a shared benefit (public good) because of the problem of “free-riders”Smaller groups are better at preventing this problem, because face to face contact creates social pressure to perform. one who cannot be excluded from obtaining the benefits of a collective good once the good is produced has little incentive to contribute
Policies as metaphorssolutions: levithan, privatization
sanctioning reliable, accuracy of information:all major problems for federal land management agencies like the Forest Service.big thing that comes in and changes everything-; controls thingsBerkeley-; it’s the scheduling, driving->cops, dmv->car registrationprivate-clearly defined boundaries, house-> it’s private, but you must pay more
People must have rules they decided upon to govern boundaries ex=co-ops have separate rooms