AP Environmental Science

agroforeastry
when trees and crops are planted together, creating a multualistic symbiotic relationship between them
aquaculture
the raising of fish and other aquatic species in captivity for harvest
bottom dwelling
a fishing technique in which the ocean floor is literally scraped by heavy nets that smash everything in their path
by-catch
any other species of fish, mammals, or birds that are caught that are not the target organism
capture fisheries
fish production in which fish are caught in the wild and not raised in captivity for consumption
clear-cutting
the removal of all of the trees in an area
conservation
the management or regulation of a resource so that its use does not exceed the capacity of the resource to regenerate itself
consumption
the day-to-day use of environmental resources such as food, clothing and housing
contour plowing
a process in which rows of crops are plowed across a hillside; this prevents the erosion that can occur when rows are cut up and down on a slope
deforestation
the removal of trees for agricultural purposes or purposes of exportation
driftnets
nets that drift free in the water and indiscriminately catch everything in their path
ecosystem capital
the value of natural resources
fishery
the industry or occupation devoted to the catching, processing, or selling of fish, shellfish, or other aquatic animals
greenbelt
open or forested areas built at the outer edge of a city
ground fires
smoldering fires that take place in bogs or swamps and can burn underground for days or weeks. originating from surface fires, ground fires are difficult to detect and extinguish
intercropping
also called strip cropping- is the practice of planting beds of different crops across a hillside
long lining
in fishing, the use of long lines that have baited hooks and will be taken by numerous aquatic organisms
malnutrition
poor nutrition that results from an insufficient or poorly balanced diet
mineral deposit
an area where a particular mineral is concentrated
mining
the excavation of the earth for the purpose of extracting ore or minerals
monoculture
when just one type of plant is planted in a large area
natural resources
biotic and abiotic natural ecosystems
nonrenewable resources
resources that are often formed by very slow geologic processes, so we consider them incapable of being regenerated within the realm of human existence
no-till methods
refers to when farmers plant seeds without using a plow to turn the soil
old growth forest
one that has never been cut; these forests have not been seriously disturbed over several hundred years
overgrazed
when grass is consumed by animals at a faster rate than it can regrow
preservation
the maintenance of a species or ecosystem in order to ensure its perpetuation, with no concern as to their potential monetary value
production
the use of environmental resources for profit
renewable resources
refers to the resources, such as plants and animals, which can be regenerated if harvested at sustainable yields
second growth forests
areas where cutting has occurred and a new, younger forest has arisen
selective sutting
the removal of select trees in an area; this leaves the majority of the habitat in a place and has less of an impact on the ecosystem
shelter wood cutting
when mature trees are cut over a period of time (usually 10-20 years); this leaves mature trees, which can reseed the forest, in place
silviculture
the management of forest plantations for the purpose of harvesting timber
slash and burn
when an area of vegetation is cut down and burned before being planted with crops
surface fires
fires that typically burn only the forest’s underbrush and do little damage to mature trees. these fires actually serve to protect teh forest from more harmful fires by removing underbrush and dead materials that would burn quickly and at high temperatures
tailings
piles of gangue, which is the waste material that results from mining
traditional subsistence agriculture
when each family in a community grows crops for themselves and relies on animal and human labor to plant and harvest crops
terracing
creating flat platforms in the hillside that provide a level planting surface, which reduces soil runoff from the slope
tree farms
also known as planations, these are planted and managed tracts of trees of the same age that are harvested for commercial use
uneven-aged management
the broad category under which selective cutting and shelter-wood cutting fall; selective deforestation