APEnvironment Part 1

Environment
everything around us, including living and nonliving things Humans are part of the environment, not seperate from it
Pressures on the global environment
-Increasing human population and increasing per capita consumption exacerbate human impacts on the environment-human activities such as industrial agriculture and fossil fuels lead to resource depletion, air and water pollution, climate change, habitat destruction, and biodiversity.
Sustainability
living within the planet’s means, such that the Earth’s resources can sustain us and other species for the foreseeable future.
Sustainable development(the triple-bottom line)
pursuing environmental, economic, and social goals in a coordinated way.
Culture and Worldview
culture: ensemble of knowledge, beliefs, and values of a group of peopleworldview: each person’s perception of the world and his or her place within it. Belief about the meaning, operation, and essence of the world.

Evolution of Ethics
society’s domain of ethical concern has been expanding (i.e self–> all man–>all humans–>all species)
Anthropocentrism
value of humans above all else (think anthropology = study of HUMAN life)
Biocentrism
value of certain life/certain living things
Ecocentrism
value of ecological systems and all they encompass
Preservation Ethic
preserving natural systems intact
Conservation Ethic
promoting responsible long term use of resources
Environmental Justice
seeking equal treatment for people of all races and income levels
Classical Economic Theory
individuals acting for their own economic good can benefit society as a whole (free-market capitalism)
Neoclassical Economic Theory
focuses on consumer behavior and on supply and demand as forces that drive economic activity
Conventional Economic Theory
promotes never-ending economic growth with little regard to possible environmental impact
Environmental Economics
advocates the reform of economic practices to promote sustainability. approaches include identifying external costs, assigning value to nonmonetary items, and attempting to make market prices reflect real costs and benefits
Ecological Economics
Supports the same as Environmental economics AND others to develop a steady-state economy.
Organic Compound
Carbon based compounds which living things depend on
Hierarchy of Matter
from small to large: Atom->Molecule->Macromolecule->Organelle->Cell->Tissue->Organ->Organ System->Organism.

Ecology
the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interaction among them, and their interactions with their nonliving environments
Paradigm
dramatic shift in dominant view (i.e earth is flat-> earth is round)
Cassandras
people who predict doom and disaster for the world because of our impacts
Cornucopians
people who maintain that human ingenuity will see us through any difficulty
Transcendentalism
Philosophical view that nature is divine
Emerson and Thoreau
Transcendentalists
Muir and Roosevelt
Ecocentrists
Pinchot and Leopald
Anthropocentrists that advocated conservation
Deep Ecology
movement resting on the principles of “self-realization” and biocentric equality. self realization is the awareness that humans are inseperable from nature.
Ecofeminism
patriarchal structure of society is a root cause of both social and environmental problems
Basel Convention
World convention that lead to a treaty that prohibits international export of waste. US has not ratified it.
Environmental Goods & Services
services and resources that the Earth provides for us free of charge (i.

e. pollination of crops, rainfall irrigation)

Contingent Value
Attempting to give a monetary price to things of aesthetic, cultural, or educational value (i.e putting a price tag on Yosemite)
GDP vs GDI
Gross Domestic Product: the total MONETARY value of final goods and services of the economyGenuine Product Indicator: the monetary value AND the nonmarket values(more accurate)
Bioremediation
the attempt to clean up pollution by enhancing natural processes of biodegradation by living organisms (i.e bacteria in the exxon valdez oil spill)
Basic Chemistry you probably know
atoms, elements, neutrons, protons, electrions, molecules, atomic #, mass #, ions, isotopes, pH
Properties of Water that Facilitate Life
-Water exhibits strong cohesion which facilitates transport of chemicals like nutrients and waste in organisms-Water can absorb large amounts of heat with only small temperature changes which stabilizes systems-Ice is less dense than water, so ice floats above water bodies and insulates them.

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-Polarity of water molecule helps to dissolve other chemicals into solutions

Potential Energy
energy of position, (i.e water being held by a dam has high potential energy)
Kinetic Energy
energy of motion (i.e water flowing fast out of a dam)
Chemical Energy
energy stored in the bonds of atoms (i.

e carbon-carbon bonds of petroleum energy)

Laws Of Thermodynamics
First: Energy is conserved/stays constant within the universeSecond: Energy will go from a more ordered to a less ordered state.
Fossil Record
the cumulative body of fossils worldwide that are used to infer the history of past life on Earth.
Natural Selection
Favorable traits that enhance survival and reproduction are passed on more frequently, thus altering genetic makeup of populations over time.

Directional Selection
Selection that drives a feature in one direction rather than another (i.e. bigger beaks are favored)
Stabilizing Selection
Selection that favors intermediate features, thus preserving the status quo (i.

e. medium beaks are favored over small and large)

Disruptive Selection
Traits at extreme ends are favored over those in the middle (i.e. small and large beaks are favored over those in the middle)
Allopatric Speciation
species formation due to physical separation of populations over some geographic distance.
Sympatric Speciation
species formation due to reproductive isolation within the same geographic area (i.e. plants that release pollen at different seasons)
Endemic Species
Species native to a single area (i.e.

frogs of the Costa Rica cloud forests)

Hierarchy of Ecology
Organism->Population->Community->Ecosystem->Biosphere
Habitat
the living and nonliving elements that elements around a species
Niche
a species’ use of resources and its functional role in a community
Specialists vs. Generalists
Specialists are species with very narrow breadth and specific requirementsGeneralists are species with broad tolerances and and adaptability to different habitats.
Population Density
Number of individuals in a population per unit area
Population Dispersion
the spatial arrangement of organisms within an area (random, uniform, or clumped)
Survivorship Curves
graphs that depict how the likelihood of death varies with age
Population Growth Calculation
(crude birth rate + immigration rate) – (crude death rate + emigration rate)
Limiting Factors
physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the environment that restrain population growth
Carrying Capacity
the maximum population size of a species that a given environment can sustain
Biotic Potential
ability to produce offspring
K-selected Species
Fewer offspring but give them more care and attention (humans, giraffes, tigers, etc)
r-selected Species
Many more offspring but less care and attention (fish, insects, frogs, etc)
Ecotourism
visitation of natural areas for for tourism and recreation
Fundamental Niche v. Realized Niche
Fundamental niche is the full role of that an organism might theoretically play.Realized niche is the actual portion of the fundamental niche that the organism fills
Competition (intra v inter)
When multiple organisms of the same species(intraspecific) or of different species(interspecific) compete for the same limited resource.

Predation
the process by which individuals of one species hunt capture kill and consume individuals of another species(predator->prey)
Resource Partitioning
process by which species will specialize to minimize competition
Trophic Levels
An organisms rank in the food hierarchy
Parasitism
relationship in which One organism benefits, the other is harmed
Mutualism
relationship in which both organisms are benefited
Commensalism
relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
Amensalism
relationship in which one organism is unaffected and one is negatively impacted
Keystone Species
Species that has a strong or wide-reaching impact far out of proportion to its abundance
Succession
predictable series of changes that follow an area which has been eliminated of all or most species in the community
Pioneer Species
species that arrive first and colonize the new substrate
Invasive Species
non native species that is introduced to a community and outcompetes native species.
Biodiversity
the sum total of all organisms in an area taking into account the diversity of species, their genes, their populations, and their communities
Species Diversity
number or variety of species in a particular region
Genetic Diversity
differences among a population of DNA composition
Extirpation
disappearance of a particular species in a particular region but not globally.
Island Biogeography
Farther an island from a continent, the fewer species colonize(distance effect)Larger the island, the more species colonize, (target size)Larger the island, the fewer species go extinct (differential extinction)
Endangered Species Act
1973, forbids actions that destroy endangered species or their habitats and forbids the trade of products that do the same.
Umbrella Species v Flagship Species
Umbrella Species are species that, by helping to protect, we in turn protect many other speciesFlagship Species are species that conservationists select to be the face of overall conservation efforts (i.e.

Panda)

Hotspots
areas that support an especially great number of species that are endemic
Community-Based Conservation
active engagement of local people in efforts to protect land and wildlife in their own backyards
Positive Feedback Loop
drive an extreme further and further in one direction (i.e. human population growth)
Negative Feedback Loop
an extreme triggers a resulting opposite extreme to neutralize/stabilize the effect (i.e. thermostats)
Spheres of the Earth
Lithosphere-rock sediment surrounding planetAtmosphere-air surrounding planetHydrosphere-water (salt and fresh) surrounding planetBiosphere-all living organisms and the nonliving environment with which they interact
Eutrophication
process of nutrient overenrichement, blooms of algae, increased production of organic matter, and subsequent ecosystem degradation
Ecotones
transitional zone where ecosystems meet
Hypoxia
condition of extremely low dissolved oxygen concentrations in a body of water
Rock Cycles, Hydrologic Cycle, Nitrogen Cycle, Phosphorus Cycle
Know them.
Soil
a complex plant-supporting system, it IS a renewable resource
Causes of Soil Degradation
-Industrialization-Overgrazing-Deforestation-Cropland Agriculture
Traditional Agriculture
biologically powered by humans and animals with simple tools. Low-yielding (enough to just support the family or to sell and make income)
Industrial Agriculture
boosted yields with machinery and synthetic fertilizers
Weathering
the physical, chemical, and biological break down of rocks and minerals into soil.

Erosion
the dislodging and movement of soil from one area to another.
Humus
dark, spongey, crumbly mass of material made up by complex organic compounds
Leaching
the process by which solid particles suspended or dissolved in liquid are transported to another location
Desertification
loss of more than 10% productivity due to erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing, or other factors.
Protection of Soil Degradation
Contour Farming-prevents rills and gulliesTerracing-cultivates hilly lands for farmingIntercropping-slows erosion by providing more ground coverShelterbelts-prevent wind erosionReduced tillage-reduces erosion from conventional tilling
Waterlogging
when the water table rises to the point that water bathes plant roots, essentially suffocating them
Salinization
the buildup of salts in surface soil layers
IPAT model
Impact =Population x Affluence x Technology x (Sensitivity)
Age Structure Diagrams
Be able to interpret
Total Fertility Rate
the average number of children born per female member of a population during her lifetime
Pre-Industrial Stage
both death rates and birth rates are high
Transitional Stage
declining death rates due to increased food and better healthcare but birth rates remain high. (this is where population really increases most)
Industrial Stage
death rates remain low, and new economic conditions/empowerment of women leads to drop in birth rates
Post-Industrial Stage
Birth and death rates plateau at a stable low level
Food Security
the guarantee of an adequate food supply available to all people at all times
Overnutrition v.

Undernourishment v. Malnourishment

overnutrition=people are fatassesundernourishment=not enough food(less than 90% of required caloric intake)malnourishment=shortage of necessary vitamins and minerals
Monocultures
large expanses of a single crop type–>increased yield but decreased biodiversity
Pesticides
artificial things that kill pests
Biocontrol
battling pests and weeds with organisms that eat or infect them.
IPM
integrated pest management: numerous techniques are used to achieve long-term suppression of pests.
Genetic Engineering
process by which scientists directly manipulate an organisms genetic material.
Recombinant DNA
DNA that has been patched together from DNA of multiple organisms.
Transgenes
genes that have moved between organisms artificially
Seed Banks
institutions that keep seeds to preserve genetic diversity
Feedlots
huge warehouses designed to deliver energy rich food to animals at extremely high densities.
Aquaculture
the raising of aquatic organisms for food in controlled environments
Sustainable Agriculture
agriculture that does not deplete soils faster than they form
Organic Agriculture
food growing practices that use no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides but instead rely on biological process (like biocontrol and composting)