APES 1st Semester Final

First Law of Thermodynamics
energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may beconverted from one form to another
Second Law of Thermodynamics:
1.     when energy is changed from one form to another,some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat)

  1. Leaching

 removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards

Parts of the hydrologic cycle:

evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation,precipitation, infiltration

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  Nitrogen fixing:

because atmospheric N cannot be used directly by plants it must first be converted into ammonia by bacteria
decomposers covert organic waste into ammonia
ammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO-3)




inorganic N is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/aminoacids & proteins
bacteria convert ammonia back into N


does not circulate as easily as N because: it does not exist as a gas, but isreleased by weathering of phosphate rocks


the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising theability of future generations to meet their needs



plants convert atmospheric C (CO2) into complex carbohydrates(glucose C6H12O6)

Aerobic respiration:

 oxygen consuming producers, consumers & decomposers breakdown complex organic compounds & convert C back into CO2
Largest reservoirs of Carbon:
carbonate rocks first, oceans second
large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plants & animals
Carrying capacity:
the number of individuals that can be sustained in an area



R Strategist v K Strategist



R strategist: reproduce early, many small unprotected offspring K strategist:reproduce late, few, cared for offspring

 Positive feedback:

when a change in some condition triggers a response that intensifies the changing condition (EX: warmer Earth – snow melts – less sunlight isreflected & more is absorbed, therefore warmer earth)


said human population cannot continue to increase. Consequences will be war, famine & disease


Doubling time:


rule of 70 70 divided by the percent growth rate

  Replacement level fertility:

the number of children a couple must have to replacethemselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)

World Population is:
almost 6 1/2 billion US Population: 299 million

 Preindustrial stage:

birth & death rates high, population grows slowly, infantmortality high



Transitional stage:

death rate lower, better health care, population grows fast



Industrial stage:

decline in birth rate, population growth slows



Postindustrial stage:



low birth & death rates

 Age structure diagrams:

(broad base, rapid growth)(narrow base, negativegrowth)(uniform shape, zero growth)


1st & 2nd most populated countries:


China & India

Most important thing affecting population growth:
low status of women

Ways to decrease birth rate:

family planning, contraception, economic rewards &penalties


Negative feedback:

when a changing in some condition triggers a response that Counteracts the changed condition (EX: warmer earth – more ocean evaporation – more Stratus clouds – less sunlight reaches the ground – therefore cooler Earth

  Greenhouse gases:

(Examples: H2O, CO2, O3, methane (CH4), CFC’s) (EFFECT:they trap outgoing infrared (heat) energy causing earth to warm




Effects of global warming:

rising sea level (thermal expansion), extreme weather,droughts (famine), extinctions

   Ozone depletion caused by:

CFC’s, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halon,methyl bromide all of which attack stratospheric ozone

 Effects of ozone depletion:

increased UV, skin cancer, cataracts, decreased plantgrowth



Keystone species:

species whose role in an ecosystem are more important than others,ex sea otter

  Indicator species:

species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is beingdamaged ex trout

  Most endangered species share the following similarities (3) 

have a small range, require large territory or live on anisland

   Endangered species:  (List examples)

North spotted Owl (loss of old growth forest), Bald Eagle (thinning of eggs caused by DDT), Piping Plover (nesting areas threatened bydevelopment)

 Garret Hardin & The Tragedy of the Commons:

Freedom to breed is bringing ruin toall. Global commons such as atmosphere & oceans are used by all and owned by none

 Kyoto Protocol:

controlling global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissionstargets for developed countries



Montreal Protocol:

phase-out of ozone deleting substances

     Endangered Species Act:

identifies threatened and endangered species in the US, andputs their protection ahead of economic considerations

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species:

lists species that cannot becommercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products