APES 1st Semester Final

First Law of Thermodynamics
energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may beconverted from one form to another
Second Law of Thermodynamics:
1.     when energy is changed from one form to another,some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat)

  1. Leaching

 removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
Parts of the hydrologic cycle:
evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation,precipitation, infiltration
  Nitrogen fixing:
because atmospheric N cannot be used directly by plants it must first be converted into ammonia by bacteria
decomposers covert organic waste into ammonia
ammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO-3)
inorganic N is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/aminoacids & proteins
bacteria convert ammonia back into N
does not circulate as easily as N because: it does not exist as a gas, but isreleased by weathering of phosphate rocks
the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising theability of future generations to meet their needs
plants convert atmospheric C (CO) into complex carbohydrates(glucose C6H12O6)
Aerobic respiration:
 oxygen consuming producers, consumers & decomposers breakdown complex organic compounds & convert C back into CO2
Largest reservoirs of Carbon:
carbonate rocks first, oceans second
large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plants & animals
Carrying capacity:
the number of individuals that can be sustained in an area
  R Strategist v K Strategist
  R strategist: reproduce early, many small unprotected offspring K strategist:reproduce late, few, cared for offspring
 Positive feedback:
when a change in some condition triggers a response that intensifies the changing condition (EX: warmer Earth – snow melts – less sunlight isreflected & more is absorbed, therefore warmer earth)
said human population cannot continue to increase.

Consequences will be war, famine & disease

 Doubling time:
 rule of 70 70 divided by the percent growth rate
  Replacement level fertility:
the number of children a couple must have to replacethemselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
World Population is:
almost 6 1/2 billion US Population: 299 million
 Preindustrial stage:
birth & death rates high, population grows slowly, infantmortality high
  Transitional stage:
death rate lower, better health care, population grows fast
  Industrial stage:
decline in birth rate, population growth slows
  Postindustrial stage:
  low birth & death rates
 Age structure diagrams:
(broad base, rapid growth)(narrow base, negativegrowth)(uniform shape, zero growth)
 1st & 2nd most populated countries:
 China & India
Most important thing affecting population growth:
low status of women
Ways to decrease birth rate:
family planning, contraception, economic rewards &penalties
 Negative feedback:
when a changing in some condition triggers a response that Counteracts the changed condition (EX: warmer earth – more ocean evaporation – more Stratus clouds – less sunlight reaches the ground – therefore cooler Earth
  Greenhouse gases:
(Examples: H2O, CO, O3, methane (CH4), CFC’s) (EFFECT:they trap outgoing infrared (heat) energy causing earth to warm
   Effects of global warming:
rising sea level (thermal expansion), extreme weather,droughts (famine), extinctions
   Ozone depletion caused by:
CFC’s, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halon,methyl bromide all of which attack stratospheric ozone
 Effects of ozone depletion:
increased UV, skin cancer, cataracts, decreased plantgrowth
  Keystone species:
species whose role in an ecosystem are more important than others,ex sea otter
  Indicator species:
species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is beingdamaged ex trout
  Most endangered species share the following similarities (3) 
have a small range, require large territory or live on anisland
   Endangered species:  (List examples)
North spotted Owl (loss of old growth forest), Bald Eagle (thinning of eggs caused by DDT), Piping Plover (nesting areas threatened bydevelopment)
 Garret Hardin & The Tragedy of the Commons:
Freedom to breed is bringing ruin toall. Global commons such as atmosphere & oceans are used by all and owned by none
 Kyoto Protocol:
controlling global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissionstargets for developed countries
  Montreal Protocol:
phase-out of ozone deleting substances
     Endangered Species Act:
identifies threatened and endangered species in the US, andputs their protection ahead of economic considerations
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species:
lists species that cannot becommercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products