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Ecology is the study of how

  1. atoms make up the environment
  2. humans affect the environment
  3. organisms interact with eachother and their nonliving environment

3. organisms interact with each other and their nonliving environment
The number of species already identified by biologists is approx.

  1. 180
  2. 1.8 million
  3. 18 billion

2. 1.8 million
The largest number of species of organisms on the Earth are currently

  1. microorganisms and fungi
  2. insects and fungi
  3. insects and microorganisms

3. insects and microorganisms
The following choices list levels of organization of matter that claim the attention of ecologists. Which correctly lists these levels in sequence from narrower to broader focus?

  1. organisms-populations-communities-ecosystems-ecosphere
  2. organisms-communities-populations-ecosystems-ecosphere
  3. ecosphere-ecosystems-communities- populations-organisms

1.

org.-pop.-com.-ecosystems-ecosphere

A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at the same time is called a

  1. species
  2. population
  3. genus

2. population
A community of living organisms interactingwith one another and the physical and chemical factors of their nonliving environment is called a(n)

  1. species
  2. ecosystem
  3. population

2. ecosystem
The basic unit of life is the

  1. nucleotide
  2. mitochondrian
  3. cell

 

3. cell
You are a microbiologist.

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You observe a cell divide into two identical cells. You are most likely watching

  1. asexual reproduction
  2. aerobic respiration
  3. sexual reproduction

1. asexual reproduction
Biodiversity emerges from

  1. mutations
  2. natural selection
  3. extinction
  4. all

4. all
The thin gaseous layer of air around the planet is called the

  1. atmosphere
  2. lithosphere
  3. biosphere

1.

atmosphere

All physical forms of water make up the

  1. atmosphere
  2. biosphere
  3. hydrosphere

3. hydrosphere
Fossil fuels and minerals are found in the

  1. atmosphere
  2. lithosphere
  3. biosphere

2. lithosphere
Ecosphere is the same as

  1. atmosphere
  2. lithosphere
  3. biosphere

3. biosphere
Energy

  1. recycles through the ecosystem
  2. flows in only one direction
  3. flows in two directions

2. flows in only one direction
The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is

  1. soil type
  2. magnetic fields
  3. climate

3. climate 
All of the following are abiotic factors except

  1. light
  2. temperature
  3. bacteria

3.

bacteria

Which of these statements are false

  1. Organisms can adapt to slowly changing new conditions by acclimation.
  2. Too much or too little can limit or prevent growth of a population of a species in an ecosystem even if all other factors are at or near the optimum range of tolerance.
  3. There is no such thing as too much fertilizer.

3. There is no such thing as too much fertilizer.
All of the following factors have strong effects on terrestrial ecosystems except

  1. temp
  2. precipitation
  3. nature of the soil
  4. dissolved oxygen

4. dissolved oxygen
Autotrophs

  1. might eat heterotrophs
  2. are known as decomposers
  3. can live without heterotrophs

3. can live without heterotrophs
Photosynthesis

  1. converts glucose into energy and water
  2. requires the combustion of carbon
  3. yields glucose and oxygen gas as products

3.

yields glucose and oxygen gas as products

You are a scientist intrigued by organisms that can create complex molecules through chemosynthesis the habitat you are most likely to visit is a(n)

  1. island paradise
  2. inland sand dune
  3. hydrothermal vent

3. hydrothermal vent
What are the organisms that feed on plants called

  1. detritus feeders
  2. omnivores
  3. herbivores

3. herbivores
Organisms that feed on both plants and animals are called

  1. detritus feeders
  2. omnivores
  3. carnivores

2. omnivores
The organisms that are classified as primary consumers are the

  1. detrivores
  2. omnivores
  3. herbivores

3. herbivores
All of the following live off remains or wastes of organisms except

  1. omnivores
  2. decomposers
  3. scavengers
  4. detrivores

1.

omnivores

Organisms that feed on dead organisms are called

  1. producers
  2. carnivores
  3. scavengers

3. scavengers
In the field you observe a lion chase, kill, and eat a gazelle. A vulture pecks away at the leftover meat scraps.

Beetles attack the remaining fragments. Finally, bacteria complete the breakdown and recycling of the organic material. If you were to apply a general classification to the feeders, what would be the correct sequence?

  1. carnivore-detritus feeder-scavenger-decomposer
  2. carnivore-scavenger-detritus feeder-decomposer
  3. carnivore-scavenger-decomposer-detritus feeder

2. carnivore-scavenger-detritus feeder-decomposer
Organisms that complete the breakdown and recycling of the organic materials from the remains or wastes of all organisms are called

  1. detrivores
  2. carnivores
  3. decomposers

3. decomposers
Aerobic respiration requires

  1. glucose and carbon dioxide
  2. glucose and oxygen
  3. oxygen and water

2. glucose and oxygen
Most of the energy input in a food chain is

  1. in the form of heat
  2. converted to biomass
  3. degraded to low-quality heat

 

3. degraded to low-quality heat
The ecological efficiency at each trophic level of a particular ecosystem is 20%.

If the green plants of the ecosystem capture 100 units of energy, about ___ units of energy will be available to support herbivores and about ___ units of energy to support carnivores.

20, 4
NPP is

  1. the rate of photosynthesis plus the rate of respiration.
  2. usually reported as the energy output of an area of producers over a given time.
  3. the energy input of an area of producers over a given time

2. usually reported as the energy output of an area of producers over a given time.
Soil is developed most directly through

  1. moving tectonic plates
  2. weathering
  3. volcanoes

2. weathering
Soil is a complex mixture of1. mineral nutrients2.

eroded rock3. air and water4. decaying organic matter5. all 

5. all