APES Midterm

Adaption
Any genetically controlled structural, physiological or behavioral characteristic that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions.

Usually results from a beneficial mutation.

Adaptive Radiation
Process in which numerous new species evolve to fill vacant and new ecological niches in changed environments, usually after a mass extinction. Typically takes millions of years.
Alleles
Slightly different molecule form found in a particular gene
Artificial Selection
Process by which humans select one or more desirable genetic traits in the population of a plant or animal species and then use selective breeding to produce populations containing many individuals with the desired traits.
Background Extinction
Normal extinction of various species as a result of changes in local environmental conditions.
Biological Evolution
Change in the genetic makeup of a population of a species in successive generations.

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If continued long enough, it can lead to the formation of a new species. Populations  (not individuals) evolve.

Biopharming
Use of genetically engineered animals to act as bio-factories for producing drugs, vaccines, antibodies, hormones, industrial chemicals such as plastics and detergents, and human body organs
Chemical Evolution
Formation of the earth and its early crust and atmosphere, evolution of the biological molecules necessary for life, and evolution of systems of chemical reactions needed to produce the first living cells. Occurred one million years prior to biological evolution
Coevolution
Evolution in which two or more species interact and exert selective pressures on each other that can lead each species to undergo various adaptations.
Differential Reproduction
Phenomenon in which individuals with adaptive genetic traits produce more living offspring than do individuals without such traits.

Ecological Niche
Total way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem. It includes all physical, chemical, and biological conditions a species needs to live and reproduce in an ecosystem.
Extinction
Complete disappearance of a species from the earth. This happens when a species cannot adapt and successfully reproduce under new environmental conditions or when it evolves into one or more new species.
Fossils
Skeletons, bones, shells, body parts, leaves, seeds, or impressions of such items that provide recognizable evidence of organisms that lived long ago.
Fundamental Niche
The full potential range of the physical, chemical, and biological factors a species can use if there is no competition from other species.

Gene Pool
The sum total of all genes found in the individuals of the population of a particular species.
Generalist Species
Species with a broad ecological niche. They can live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, and tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. (flies, human beings)
Genetic Engineering
Insertion of an alien gene into an organism to give it a beneficial genetic trait
GMO’s
Organism whose genetic makeup has been modified by genetic engineering
Geographic Isolation
Separation of populations of a species for long times into different areas
Habitat
Place or type of place where an organism or population of organisms lives
Macroevolution
Long-term, large-scale evolutionary changes among groups of species
Mass Depletion
Widespread, often global period during which extinction rates are higher than normal but not high enough to classify as mass extinction
Mass Extinction
A catastrophic, widespread, of global even in which major groups of species are wiped out over a short time compared with normal (background) extinctions.
Microevolution
The small genetic changes a population undergoes
Mutations
A random change in DNA molecules making up genes that can yield changes in anatomy, physiology, or behavior in offspring
Mutations
A random change in DNA molecules making up genes that can yield changes in anatomy, physiology, or behavior in offspring
Natural Selection
Process by which a particular beneficial gene (or set of genes) is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes. The result of natural selection is a population that contains a greater proportion of organism better adapted to certain environmental conditions
Productive Isolation
the second phase of Allopatric speciation. Occurs when mutation and natural selection operate independently in the gene pools of two geographically isolated populations
Realized Niche
Parts of the fundamental niche of a species that are actually used by that species
Theory of Evolution
Widely accepted scientific idea that all life forms developed from earlier life forms
Speciation
Formation of two species from one species because of divergent natural selection in response to changes in environmental conditions; usually takes thousands of years
Rachel Carson
Wrote Silent Spring in 1962, warned against pesticides, led to ban on DDT
Theodore Roosevelt
First national park
John Muir
Established the Sierra Club 1892
System
Set of components that function and interact in some regular and theoretically understandable manner
Input
Matter, energy, or information entering a system
Output
Matter, energy, or information leaving a system
Flows
Flow of matter, energy, or information through a system
Positive Feedback Loop
Causes a system to change further in the same direction
Negative Feedback Loop
Causes a system to change further in the opposite direction
Synergy
Interaction of two or more factors or processses so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of the two effects
Exponential Growth
Growth doubling, yo
GIS
Geographic Information System, Used it to look at environmental issues and map them
Earth Day
April 22, 1970
Levels of Organization
Organisms, population, communities, ecosystems, ecosphere
Ecotone
Transition zone in between ecosystems
Eveness
abundance of species
Richness
number of species
Nitrate
The form of Nitrogen most usable to plants
Interspecific
attempts by members of two or more species to use the same limited resources in an ecosystem
Intraspecific
Attempts by two or more organisms of a single species competing for a single limited resource
K-Strategist
Species that produce few, not often, better parents
R-strategist
species that produce early in their life and produce a lot , short lived