a social movement dedicated to protecting life support systems for all species.
the natural resources and natural services that keep us and other species alive and support our economies.
Natural capital degradation
occurs when human activities use renewable resources faster than they can be replenished.
compromises that are made to resolve conflicts.
energy from the sun
earth’s resources and ecological services
Gross domestic product (GDP)
the market value for goods and services produced both within the country
Rule of 70
Used to calculate doubling time of a population 70/percentage growth rate = doubling time in years
anything obtained from the environment to meet our needs and wants
A resource that is renewed continuously, like solar energy
must not be used up faster than they can be replaced, like grasslands, fresh water and air, fertile soil, etc.
the highest rate of use on an indefinite scale without degradation or depletion.
occurs when use of resources exceeds rate of replacement
Tragedy of the Commons
the overuse or degradation of freely available resources such as ocean pollution, abuse of national parks, air pollution, etc. No one individual owns these free-access resources.
Per capita ecological footprint
the biologically productive land and water needed to supply renewable resources and absorb waste for each individual.
A resource that exists in fixed quantity or stock in the earth’s crust. The resource is economically depleted when it costs too much to obtain what is left.
the addiction to over-consumption of material goods.
results in the combined effects of a process being greater than the sum of the separate effects.
anything that has mass and takes up space, living or not. It comes in chemical forms, as an element or a compound.
the distinctive building block that makes up every substance; chemically, elements are represented by a one- or two-letter symbol.
Material efficiency/resource productivity
the total amount of material needed to produce a unit of good/service.
Law of conservation of matter
no atoms are created/destroyed during a physical or chemical change
the capacity to do work and transfer heat
energy that travels as a wave, a result of changing electric and magnetic fields
the range of electromagnetic waves that have different wavelengths and energy content
the total kinetic energy of all moving atoms, ions, or molecules in a substance
the average speed of motion of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample of matter.
First Law of Thermodynamics
energy can neither be created/destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
when energy is changed from one form to another, there is always less usable energy.
Energy quality is depleted.
the study of connections in the natural world
consists of a group of interacting individuals of the same species occupying a specific area
the place where a population or an individual usually lives
Distribution or Range
the area over which a species may be found
populations of different species living and interacting in a specific area
consists of all the populations of different species interacting and living in a specific area; this is a network of plants, animals, and microorganisms.
a community of different species interacting with each other and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy. All of the earth’s diverse ecosystems comprise the biosphere
the thin membrane of air around the planet.
the air layer about 11 miles above sea level
lies above the troposphere between 11-30 miles; it filters out the sun’s harmful radiation.
consists of earth’s water, found in liquid water, ice, and water vapor.
the crust and upper mantle of the earth’s soil. It contains nonrenewable fossil fuels, minerals, and soil, and renewable soil chemicals needed for plant life.
includes most of the hydrosphere, parts of the lower atmosphere and upper lithosphere. All parts of the biosphere are interconnected.
Law of tolerance
The distribution of a species in an ecosystem is determined by the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors’ being within the range tolerated by that species
Limiting factor principle
too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimum range of tolerance
break down organic detritus (bacteria/fungi) into simpler inorganic compounds
feeds on both plants and animals.
feed on dead organic matter and break it down into smaller molecules
the amazing variety of earth’s genes, species, ecosystems, and ecosystem processes.1. The kinds of biodiversity are: genetic diversity, species diversity, ecological diversity and functional diversity.
feeding levels for organisms within an ecosystem
complex networks of interconnected food chains
The dry weight of all organic matter within the organisms of a food chain/web
Nutrient cycles/biogeochemical cycles
Global recycling systems that interconnect all organisms These cycles include the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water cycles.