APES Unit Two Test Review

Atmospheric Pressure
Measure of Mass Per Unit of Air, contigent of gravity
Level of atmosphere where we live, weather takes place here, gets warmer as you go up.
78% N2, 21% 02,trace H2O, AR, and CO2
Composition of Troposphere
Short Term Atmospheric Conditions
Combination of Average Temperature and Average Precipitation
Second Layer of the atmosphere, Contains Ozone which blocks out harmful UV rays.
Ultraviolet Radiation
Ozone Blocks out 95% of this
Stratospheric Ozone
O3, Considered the good kind of Ozone
Photochemical Ozone
Dangerous variety of Ozone, caused by Smog and Pollution
High Pressure Air Mass
Cooler Denser Air, Less water vapor, less humidity, clear sunny skies
Low Pressure Air Mass
Lower Denstiy, More Water Vapor, forms clouds and precipitation, creates stroms and Hurricaines
Warm Front
Warm air overides cool air, longer duration, causes clouds and rain.


Cold Front
Cool Air going underneath warm air, moves quickly causes thunder clouds and high winds, very sudden
Dew Point 
the temperature below which the water vapor in air at constant barometric pressure condenses into liquid water at the same rate at which it evaporates.

When large warm air masses move rapidly over the more dense mass of cold air and rises rapidly to form strong verticle convection currents that suck air upwards.
Tropical Cyclones
when Low Pressure cells form over Warm Tropical Ocean Water. There is rapid evaporation and condesation as winds begin to swirl due to the low prressure, when it cools it starts to violently rain.
Caused by cold front, a rapidly moving towering cloud
Jet Streams
Hurricane Force Winds that circle the Earth and have a Strong Infulence of Weather Patterns
Stationary Front
When a warm front or a cold front stops moving
When Wind blows warm water away from a coast and pushes cold nutrient rich water to the top.

Changing of Wind directions, consits of El Nino and La Nina.
El Nino
When winds in Southern American Pacific Coastal Waters change from goin East to West to going to West to East. Causes warmer waters but fewer upwellings.
La Nina
Causes water in Southern American Coastal Waters to change from blowing West to East to blowing East to West.

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Causes more upwellings and cooler water.

Climate Zones
Different areas that experience different climates.
Factors that affect global air circulation
Uneven Heating of the Earth’s Surface, Tilt of the Earth’s Axis, Seasonal Changes, and Air speed of Wind in over Equator vs. over the Poles.

Greenhouse Effect
When the Earth’s Atomosphere traps some Gasses instead of ejecting all of it out into space.
Global Warming
Unatural Increase of Greenhouse Gasses caused by Human Activity. Burning Fossile Fuels, effects of Agriculture, and Deforestation.
Prevailing Winds
Wind Patterns that typically only blow in one direction.
Rain Shadow Effect
Prevailing Winds pick up moisture from the ocean and releases the moisture on the windward side of a mountain, while on the leeward side of the mountain dry air decends and releases very little moisture. This creates micro climates.
Windward Side
Rain Shadow Effect causes this side to be moist
Leeward Side
Rain Shadow Effect causes this side to have dry climates
Study of the Earth’s internal and external processes
Those who study the Earth
Dynamic Planet
The concept that Earth is every changing
Hot solid layer of the Earth, surronded by a molten outer layer.
Solid layer of the Earth, surrounds the core, thickest layer of the Earth
Very thin outermost layer of the Earth, oceanic and continental
Located just under the lithosphere this layer is located in the upper mantle, it is generally solid but parts of it could be melted.

Continental Crust
Crust located on land
Oceanic Crust
Crust located on ocean floor
Convection Currents
Moves large volumes of heat and rock like a conveyer belt in large loops. Soft hot rock is pushed upwards, and hard rock is pushed downward as it cools
Mantle Plumes
Mantle Rock flows up slowly like smoke in a chimney and then spreads out in a radical pattern in all directions like an umbrella
Contains the crust and the uppermost layer of the mantle, tectonic plates are in this layer.
Tectonic Plates
There are about 15 of these, they move along the astenosphere and they are slowly moving and interacting with eachother.
Contiental Drift
Theory of Alfred Wegner, the crust and the continents of the Earth are not fixed but in constant motion.
Divergent Plate Boundry
When two plates move away from eachother, results in mid ocean ridges or a rift.
Convergent Plate Boundry
When two plates come together. A trench will form in the ocean or a mountain if its on land.
When two plates converge and the denser one slips under the less dense plate and pushes it into the mantle .

This can cause Earthquakes

Subduction Zone
The area of collision between two convergent plates
What will typically form when two oceanic plates converge
Transform Fault
When two plates rub against eachother laterally. No major land form is created, but there is a high chance of Earthquakes.
External Processes of Earth
Weathering and Erosion
The Process in which material is dissolved, loosned, or worn from one part of the Earth and is moved away to another.
Physical, Chemical, or Biological process that breaks down rocks and minerals
Physical/Mechanical Weathering
Where a large rock is broken down into smaller pieces mostly by frost wedging
Frost Wedging
Process in which water collects in pores of rocks, expands upon freezing, and splits off pieces of rock.

Chemical Weathering
Where one or more chemical reactions decompose a mass of rock. Most common with oxygen and carbon dioxdie.
Biological Weathering
The conversion of rock or minerals into smaller particles through the action of living things, such as Lichen producing chemicals and acids that breakdown rock.

The faulting or a later abrupt movement on an existing fault.
Richter Scale
Used to measure Earthquakes. Valued 1-10, where each interger is ten times greater than the previous.
Measured by the amount of energy released in the shockwaves of an Earthquake.

Instrument used to measure magnitude
Shockwaves that gradually decrease in frequency after the main shockwaves.
Primary Effects of Earthquakes
Massive release of energy, shaking, permanent displacement of the ground
Secondary Effects of Earthquakes
Landslides, Flooding, Fires, Sinkholes, Tsunamis
Motion of Earth’s surface downwards.
Massive waves caused by Earthquakes, very destructive
The Point where an Earthquake shockwave originates
The Point on the surface above the Earth directly above the Focus point.
When an upwelling of magma reaches the surface through a central vent in the Earth
Molten rock stored up in the mantle
Stationary chamber of magma that can reach the Earth’s surface, plates move on top of it.
Cooling Effect
Theory that states that after a volcano eurupts average temperature drops about two degrees in the next two years.

Positive Effects of Volcanoes
Makes fertile soil, creates new land, and is nice scenery
Negative Effects of Volcanoes
Causes damge and destroys things, ejects ash that blocks out the sunlight, cools atmosphere, and creates acid rain.
Water’s unique properties
Hydrogen Bonds, High Boiling Point, High Heat Capacity, Evaporative Cooling, Natural Solvent, Blocks UV radiation, capilary action, and expands when freezes.
Saline Water
Unusable water supply makes up 97.4% of world’s water supply
Fresh Water
Water useable by humans, 2.6% of total water supply
Ice Caps and Glaciers
Makes up 1.

984% of water supply, not available to humans.

0.592% of water supply, not readily accessible to humans
Hydrologic Cycle
Includes evaporation, transpiration, precipation, infiltration, etc.
Process where water heats up and turns from a liquid to a gas
When water evaporates from the surface of plants
The cooling process of water where it turns from a gas to a liquid
Process in which surface water penetrates the surface and becomes ground water
When water flows on the Earth’s surface
The area where surface water drains into a river, lake, wetland, or other body of water
Drainage Basin
Where water drains into a body of water
Reliable Runoff
The amount of water that is generally sustainable and useable anually
Zone of Aeration
Area of an aquifer that is less deep and is a mix of air and water
Zone of Saturation
Area of an Aquifer that is all water and is deep.
Water Table
Fluctuating boundary between area of saturation and aeration
Underground regions of porous rock and sand through which water can flow, there is a slow recharge of this area by penetration
Unconfined Aquifer
Aquifer where the groundwater is in direct contact with the atmosphere through open pores in the rock
Confined Aquifer
Aquifer that is typically deeper, and is overlain by inpermeable rock. Restricts movement of water
Artesain Well
A well in which water is forced to the top by hydrologic pressure.
Pump Well
A well in which water must be retrieved using manual energy
Natural Recharge
The process in which runoff penetrates the ground and sinks into an aquifer, replenishing the supply
Lateral Recharge
Where water flows into an aquifer from the side
Hydrological Connection
Idea that eventually most groundwater flows into rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water.
Non-replenishhable Aquifers
Aquifers that are found very deep underground, so deep that they will not replenish themselves
Water Mining
Drilling Wells to extract groundwater
When water is taken from from the ground
Thermal Pollution
Heated water returned to the Earth that disrupts aquatic life
Consumptive Water Use
When withdrawn water is not available for reuse from the basin it was removed from
The artificial application of water to farmland
Dry Climate
Naturally Low expected amount of precipitation
Unexpected low precipitation
Removing of trees to expose soil, this causes higher evaporation of water
Water Stress
Human activity is using too much water
Water Scarcity
Growing freshwater use, and the depletion of fresh water available
Hydrological Poverty
People who can’t afford safe drinking water
Government Ownership
When governments control the water supply
Private Organization
In developing countries this is more common, where individuals or companies control water