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Causes more upwellings and cooler water.
Different areas that experience different climates.
Factors that affect global air circulation
Uneven Heating of the Earth’s Surface, Tilt of the Earth’s Axis, Seasonal Changes, and Air speed of Wind in over Equator vs. over the Poles.
When the Earth’s Atomosphere traps some Gasses instead of ejecting all of it out into space.
Unatural Increase of Greenhouse Gasses caused by Human Activity. Burning Fossile Fuels, effects of Agriculture, and Deforestation.
Wind Patterns that typically only blow in one direction.
Rain Shadow Effect
Prevailing Winds pick up moisture from the ocean and releases the moisture on the windward side of a mountain, while on the leeward side of the mountain dry air decends and releases very little moisture. This creates micro climates.
Rain Shadow Effect causes this side to be moist
Rain Shadow Effect causes this side to have dry climates
Study of the Earth’s internal and external processes
Those who study the Earth
The concept that Earth is every changing
Hot solid layer of the Earth, surronded by a molten outer layer.
Solid layer of the Earth, surrounds the core, thickest layer of the Earth
Very thin outermost layer of the Earth, oceanic and continental
Located just under the lithosphere this layer is located in the upper mantle, it is generally solid but parts of it could be melted.
Crust located on land
Crust located on ocean floor
Moves large volumes of heat and rock like a conveyer belt in large loops. Soft hot rock is pushed upwards, and hard rock is pushed downward as it cools
Mantle Rock flows up slowly like smoke in a chimney and then spreads out in a radical pattern in all directions like an umbrella
Contains the crust and the uppermost layer of the mantle, tectonic plates are in this layer.
There are about 15 of these, they move along the astenosphere and they are slowly moving and interacting with eachother.
Theory of Alfred Wegner, the crust and the continents of the Earth are not fixed but in constant motion.
Divergent Plate Boundry
When two plates move away from eachother, results in mid ocean ridges or a rift.
Convergent Plate Boundry
When two plates come together. A trench will form in the ocean or a mountain if its on land.
When two plates converge and the denser one slips under the less dense plate and pushes it into the mantle .
This can cause Earthquakes
The area of collision between two convergent plates
What will typically form when two oceanic plates converge
When two plates rub against eachother laterally. No major land form is created, but there is a high chance of Earthquakes.
External Processes of Earth
Weathering and Erosion
The Process in which material is dissolved, loosned, or worn from one part of the Earth and is moved away to another.
Physical, Chemical, or Biological process that breaks down rocks and minerals
Where a large rock is broken down into smaller pieces mostly by frost wedging
Process in which water collects in pores of rocks, expands upon freezing, and splits off pieces of rock.
Where one or more chemical reactions decompose a mass of rock. Most common with oxygen and carbon dioxdie.
The conversion of rock or minerals into smaller particles through the action of living things, such as Lichen producing chemicals and acids that breakdown rock.
The faulting or a later abrupt movement on an existing fault.
Used to measure Earthquakes. Valued 1-10, where each interger is ten times greater than the previous.
Measured by the amount of energy released in the shockwaves of an Earthquake.
Instrument used to measure magnitude
Shockwaves that gradually decrease in frequency after the main shockwaves.
Primary Effects of Earthquakes
Massive release of energy, shaking, permanent displacement of the ground
Secondary Effects of Earthquakes
Landslides, Flooding, Fires, Sinkholes, Tsunamis
Motion of Earth’s surface downwards.
Massive waves caused by Earthquakes, very destructive
The Point where an Earthquake shockwave originates
The Point on the surface above the Earth directly above the Focus point.
When an upwelling of magma reaches the surface through a central vent in the Earth
Molten rock stored up in the mantle
Stationary chamber of magma that can reach the Earth’s surface, plates move on top of it.
Theory that states that after a volcano eurupts average temperature drops about two degrees in the next two years.
Positive Effects of Volcanoes
Makes fertile soil, creates new land, and is nice scenery
Negative Effects of Volcanoes
Causes damge and destroys things, ejects ash that blocks out the sunlight, cools atmosphere, and creates acid rain.
Water’s unique properties
Hydrogen Bonds, High Boiling Point, High Heat Capacity, Evaporative Cooling, Natural Solvent, Blocks UV radiation, capilary action, and expands when freezes.
Unusable water supply makes up 97.4% of world’s water supply
Water useable by humans, 2.6% of total water supply
Ice Caps and Glaciers
Makes up 1.
984% of water supply, not available to humans.
0.592% of water supply, not readily accessible to humans
Includes evaporation, transpiration, precipation, infiltration, etc.
Process where water heats up and turns from a liquid to a gas
When water evaporates from the surface of plants
The cooling process of water where it turns from a gas to a liquid
Process in which surface water penetrates the surface and becomes ground water
When water flows on the Earth’s surface
The area where surface water drains into a river, lake, wetland, or other body of water
Where water drains into a body of water
The amount of water that is generally sustainable and useable anually
Zone of Aeration
Area of an aquifer that is less deep and is a mix of air and water
Zone of Saturation
Area of an Aquifer that is all water and is deep.
Fluctuating boundary between area of saturation and aeration
Underground regions of porous rock and sand through which water can flow, there is a slow recharge of this area by penetration
Aquifer where the groundwater is in direct contact with the atmosphere through open pores in the rock
Aquifer that is typically deeper, and is overlain by inpermeable rock. Restricts movement of water
A well in which water is forced to the top by hydrologic pressure.
A well in which water must be retrieved using manual energy
The process in which runoff penetrates the ground and sinks into an aquifer, replenishing the supply
Where water flows into an aquifer from the side
Idea that eventually most groundwater flows into rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water.
Aquifers that are found very deep underground, so deep that they will not replenish themselves
Drilling Wells to extract groundwater
When water is taken from from the ground
Heated water returned to the Earth that disrupts aquatic life
Consumptive Water Use
When withdrawn water is not available for reuse from the basin it was removed from
The artificial application of water to farmland
Naturally Low expected amount of precipitation
Unexpected low precipitation
Removing of trees to expose soil, this causes higher evaporation of water
Human activity is using too much water
Growing freshwater use, and the depletion of fresh water available
People who can’t afford safe drinking water
When governments control the water supply
In developing countries this is more common, where individuals or companies control water