6913305338092122″ style=”color: #000000; font-family: Calibri; font-size: 15px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; background-color: transparent;”>What strategies do plants use to maintain water balance in their tissues?
→ the lose it through transpiration, evaporation, and photosynthetic reaction→ they gain it by diffusion from soil to roots (+ precipitation), and absorption from the atmosphere
Describe the Intertropical Convergence Zone and explain why it is important to rainfall distribution.
A belt of low pressure around the earth at the equator, it is formed by the vertical ascent of warm, moist air from the latitudes above and below the equator. Long term changes in rainfall can cause a severe drought.
Describe three ways in which plants adapt to drought.
→ dormancy during the dry season: plants drop leaves, shut down leaf function or spend the dry season as seeds.→ Reducing water losses: example such as thorns, thick bark, small leaves→ accessing additional water sources: such as deep roots, rainwater tanks
Describe four ways in which water can be used more efficiently by farmers when they plant crops.
by using → plastic sheeting, drip irrigation, rapid plant growth, less chaff and more grain.
Describe two negative effects of reservoir construction. Are there any positive effects of building reservoirs beyond the capture of water for human use?
negative effects: reduces loss of freshwater to the sea, loss of bottomland farmland.a positive effect could be that it increases flood control capacity.
It has been proposed that moving icebergs from the poles to arid areas of the world could provide a great deal of fresh water.
Describe why this fact is true and how you would engineer such a feat if you were hired by the government of Mauritania to do so.
Icebergs are masses of frozen fresh water, much larger beneath the surface than above.. Obviously moving them away from the poles would cause them to melt. If you had a system to capture that fresh water, this might be feasible
you could add calcium to the irrigation of the water which would increase salt tolerance, andgrow salt tolerant varieties of normal crops by using interbreeding procedures such as grafting.
Could cutting down tropical forests really result in less rainfall? How much less? Why would the amount of rainfall decrease?
by 10-40%. it would decrease because there is less evaporation surface, shallower roots, less wind turbulence, and lower productivity.
Discuss the current changes found in the Sahel region of Africa. Be complete.
there has been vegetation removal/ water from the atmosphere which in return can cause reductions in rainfall by 34%
Do you think that it is feasible to make clean water available to 100% of the populations on the Earth? Explain why or why not.
This is feasible, but it would be an extremely difficult task to complete because there is a problem with infrastructure in many countries.
They do not even have ways to treat their water, and often times it is polluted with waste and therefore no longer potable. Also, developed countries use a lot of water and do not actively conserve it so there would have to be a change in this behavior.
Deforestation of temperate deciduous forest and replacement with grass and shrubs reduces evapotranspiration by 10-40%. This is not a consequence of
e. more wind turbulence.
Porous water-saturated layers of underground rock are known as
Overuse of groundwater can lead to
a. salt water intrusion into aquifers.
b. subsidence of overlaying rock layers. c. depletion of aquifers before they can recharge.d. All of the above are correct.
b. water is an important solvent
From 1980 to 1994 many more people on the planet had safe drinking water. How many?
It is most economically and environmentally best to focus water resource management on
increasing the efficiency of the way we use water on a daily basis.
Animals can adapt to drought quickly by
migrating to wetter areas.
b. reducing their water requirements.
both a and b
Which of the following is a negative consequence of pumping groundwater?
Estuaries can have major changes in salinity.
Sustainable water use involves
b. preserving the ecological integrity of water supply systems. c. efficient use of water. d. All of these answers are correct.
Which of the following correctly labels this diagram of the water cycle?
a. A = evaporation B = condensation C = precipitation D = transpiration
An adequate supply of water is about __________________ per person per day.
b. 13 gallons
Which of the following is an important way to increase efficiency of water use by crops?
d. Use drip irrigation and plastic sheeting to conserve water.
b. 1948, 1972
The Clean Water Act was actually called by this name in
The CWA made it unlawful to
c. discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained.
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 was the first major U.S.
d. address water pollution.
State the location of the most productive areas of the ocean and explain why those areas are so productive.
Areas where new nutrients are added to the photic zone: estuaries, shallow areas, upwelling
Explain why the number of trophic levels in a food web is important in fisheries.
How are marine food webs different from those found in terrestrial systems?
Fish have the highest trophic level which means they have less energy. Because of this small amount of energy, they have less energy available than terrestrial systems.
What is the compensation depth and where is it found in the ocean?
the water column above the compensation depth (200m) is called the PHOTIC ZONE
Explain MSY and draw a graph of this idea. Be complete.
→ Maximum sustainable yield—-> applied separately to each stock….harvest level chosen to keep stock growing at the fastest rate possible..
.usually assumes stock size is known at beginning of each year.
nedd a graph
State what you think is the most important reason why the success of fishery management has been so poor and present arguments in defense of your choice.
It is difficult to enforce rules of the ocean because it is a commons, not owned by any country and therefore cannot be put under any particular country’s laws.
The world demand is too high and unsustainable.
. Why is the catch per unit effort (CPUE) so important for fisheries managers to know?
7. List and explain four actions that have been used by fisheries managers to control fish harvests.
→ shorten the length of the harvest period→ restrict the type of gear that is legal→ restrict the size of the area that can be fished→ set a biomass quota that can be harvested (CPU effort)
Distinguish between recruitment over fishing and growth over fishing.
?Recruitment over fishing: The rate of fishing above which the recruitment to the exploitable stock becomes significantly reduced;?Recruitment is not keeping up with mortality.?Uncommon in past but becoming more common.??Growth over fishing: when fish are harvested at an average size that is smaller than the size that would produce the maximum yield per recruit; ?Reduction in mean size of individuals.
?Common in past and common today.
The oceans cover about ________ of the Earth’s surface.
Describe the Basque whaling tradition.
The first modern whaling was done by the Basques as early as 1059.
Although the Atlantic Grey whale may also have been hunted. The right whale was hunted first. These were considered to be the right whales to hunt. This was due to the fact that the right whale floats when it is killed. Other whales do not.
Whale was consumed on meatless holidays. Oil was used for lighting; manufacture of soap, wool, leather, paint.
Describe the New England whaling era. Be sure to state the years it operated, how many ships were used, what whales were caught and what do YOU think caused it to decline?
1650-1850. By 1851 there were 638 ships.
Catching sperm whales, then Blue whales by the 1850’s because they wanted to catch the biggest
Describe what a factory ship is and why it is useful in a whaling operation. Be sure to state the numbers of different whales killed after the advent of factory ships. Why was it so much easier to kill the whales then?
In 1925, factory ships came around. It was easier because they could drag the whales right up onto the stern of the ship and clean it then instead of waiting and bringing it back onto shore.
What happens in a whale sanctuary? Does whaling still happen there? Why were those sanctuaries created?
In a whale sanctuary the whales are prohibited to be hunted by the commercial fishermen so that they can be protected. yes whaling does still hapen, scientific whaling loophole (they kill whales for research and it’s accepted.
Are whales still being caught? If so, by which nation(s)?
Norway, Iceland, Russia, Japan, the United States and Denmark
Describe 4 research controversies associated with whaling in general.
→ should small cetaceans be hunted: → how toxic is whale meat anyway→ should humans really be hunting whales→ do whales eat commercially important fish
Define and describe 3 types of MPAs.
→ 1. “no take” no fishing is allowed. you make the most critical area a no take zone, and surrounding it with areas of lesser protections.–>2. multiple use: areas which enable flexibility for the most important sections get the highest protection
True or False: It is important to remove invasive species from invaded habitats in order to protect the habitat from other invasive species.
Define the following terms and explain how each one reduces the size of fish stocks or damages the ecosystem: ghost nets, by-catch, high grading practice, IUU.
Drift nets that are either lost accidentally or intentionally discarded by fishing boats. Once detached from boats, they may spend years entangling and killing fish, turtles, seabirds and whalesby-catch: unwanted marine creatures that are caught in the nets while fishing for another species; “thousands of dolphins and porpoises and whales are killed as part of the by-catch each year”high grading practice: discarding smaller fish of the species to make room for larger fish.IUU: Illegal fishing takes place where vessels operate in violation of the laws of a fishery.
List five things that threaten marine fisheries, explain why they are damaging and explain which one you think does the most damage.
?climate change,?improvements in fishing gear technology,?demand exceeding current supply,?strong social pressure to maintain fishermen,?possible extinction of some local gene pools and?lowering of expectations of what is good practice over time.
Aquaculture is the trend of the future. Explain at least two good points of aquaculture and two negative point
AKA farming fish-less damaging to the global environment-more damaging to the local environment, waste handling -leads to a high demand for forage fish to feed carnivorous fish-reliability containing the cultured animals and excluding predators
Why does fish production vary so much in different parts of the ocean? Locate the most productive areas in the ocean and state why they are high in productivity.
All energy comes from the sun: Sunlight of sufficient intensity for photosynthesis is all absorbed before the depth of 200 meters in the clearest of seawater and at much shallower depths in productive coastal areas.
Describe the findings and purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Act.
FINDINGS: 1. fish available for harvest in United States coasts, seas, rivers or estuaries, constitute valuable and renewable natural resources. These fishery resources contribute to the food supply, economy, and health of the Nation and provide recreational opportunities. 2. Certain stocks of fish have declined to the point where their survival is threatened, and other stocks of fish could become similarly threatened as a consequence of (A) increased fishing pressure, (B) the inadequacy of fishery resource conservation and management practices and controls, or (C) direct and indirect habitat losses which have resulted in a diminished capacity to support existing fishing levels.
3.) Commercial and recreational fishing constitutes a major source of
employment and contributes significantly to the econom; economies have been badly damaged by the overfishing 4. International fishery agreements have not been effective in preventing or terminating the overfishing (5) Fishery resources are finite but renewable.6. A national program for the conservation & management of the fishery resources of the USPURPOSES: 1.
take immediate actionto conserve and manage the fishery resources by exercising (A) sovereign rights for managing fish (B) exclusive fishery management authority beyond the exclusive economic zone
Ecosystems with the world’s highest net primary productivity per unit area are found in the
a. coastal zone
Compensation depth is the depth to which
sunlight can penetrate clear ocean waters.
. Most photosynthesis in the ocean system happens in the
a. photic zone
Only about one-percent of the food for humans comes from the sea due to the fact that
fish from the sea are top carnivores and they have less trophic energy to give
Over half of the area of estuaries and coastal wetlands in the U.S. has been destroyed or damaged b
b. filling in the area to build human habitation. c. pesticides and heavy metal pollution.d. All of these answers are correct
lack of mineral nutrients.
b. instability of light environment.
a. estuaries, shallow areas and upwelling zones
What is a population or stock of fish?
what graph has an s shaped curve
a. Logistic growth follows an S-shaped curve that levels out at carrying capacity
what kind of graph has a j shaped curve
Exponential growth follows a J-shaped curve that does not level out
Some of the traditional assumptions of fisheries management have always been
a. that the size of the stock next year can be modeled by a simple additive and subtractive equation, based on this year’s stock size. b. that in the absence of fishing harvest, the stock size will remain constant. c.
fishing effort remains constant each year.
d. All of these are traditional assumptions
Maximum sustainable yield is the theory tha
c. there is a maximum amount of fish that can be removed from a stock that allow for the best fishing returns.
Regulation of fishing is best done using
Aquaculture is the production of fish in a farm situation. Which of the following is a benefit associated with aquaculture?
a. Production of fish is more economical.
“The fish off the coasts of the United States, the highly migratory species of the high seas, the species which dwell on or in the Continental Shelf appertaining to the United States, and the anadromous species which spawn in United States rivers or estuaries, constitute valuable and renewable natural resources.”
This is part of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act.
Certain stocks of fish have declined to the point where their survival is threatened, and other stocks of fish have been so substantially reduced in number that they could become similarly threatened as a consequence of
a. increased fishing pressure.b.
the inadequacy of fishery resource conservation and management practices and controls.
c. direct and indirect habitat losses which have resulted in a diminished capacity to support existing fishing levels.d. All of these are correct.
One important aspect of the Magnuson-Stevens Act is that it recognized that
commercial and recreational fishing constitutes a major source of employment and contributes significantly to the economy of the Nation.
T/FInternational fisheries acts are effective at preventing or terminating overfishing
t/fFishery resources are finite but renewable.
One of the purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Act was t
a. take immediate action to preserve stocks.
t/fThe Japanese were the first nation to begin commercial whalin
Which of the following nations are still whaling?
a. Norway, Iceland, Russia, Japan, the United States and Denmark.
Why does Japan fund fisheries in other countries?
c. To garner more votes at the IWC.
t/f The Basques were the first nation to begin commercial whaling.
The article that allows for scientific whaling in the IWC convention i
Which of the following countries was NOT an original signatory of the IWCR?
Where was the first convention on the regulation of whaling signed?
b. Washington, DC.
When did the sperm whale fishery open?
Why did the Basques hunt the Right whales
d. They were the “right” whale to hunt because they floated when they were killed
TWO of the following countries practices this type of whalin
c. Japan, The Faeroe Islands
What is a marine protected area?
d. A variety of conservation and management methods in the United States.
What does multiple-use mean?
c. An MPA that has specific areas for specific purposes and fishing is allowed there
A no-take MPA is one where
c. no fishing is allowed, but extraction of other natural resources is permitted.
the Virginian Atlantic marine ecosystem
Most MPAs are managed by the
One of the best things about MPAs is that they hav