Aquatic Ecosystems

Corals Reefs
Colonies of polyps.Symbiotic relationship between polyp and algae (zooanthellae
Nematocysts
Stinging cells, secrete calcium carbonate
Coral Bleaching 
Chemical pollution, global warming, extra UV, excess sediment from rivers, human contact
How much of the earth’s surface is covered by salt and freshwater?
3/4ths
Plankton
Free- floating, drifting organisms
Phytoplankton
Plants
Zooplankton
animals
Nekton
Fish, turtles, whales, etc
Benthos
Bottom dwellers
Euphotic Zone
Sunlight can penetrate (upper layer)
Bathyal Zone
Twilight area
Abyssal Zone
Dark bottom layer
The Coastal Zone
Warm, nutrient rich, shallow waterLess than 10% of the world’s oceans are coastal, but 90% of the species live in there
Intertidal Zone
Changing temperature, salinity, wave action, desication (dying out)
Kelp Forest
Macrosystis. Giant Kelp, provides shelter and food
Holdfast
attaches it to a rock not roots
Air Bladder
helps fronds stay near surface
Keystone Species
Presence/absence of this species profoundly affects the ecosystem
Where are salt marshes found? Mangrove trees?
Saltmarches are found in temperate zonesMangrove forests are found in tropical zones
Estauries
where fresh and salt water mixes.

Tolerant of chance in temperature and salinity

Barrier Islands
sandy islands that form off shore primary and secondary dunes protect land from erosion by the sea
Standing water=Flowering water=
lenticlotic
Limnetic Zone
Light is able to penetrate into lake
Littoral Zone
Light is able to penetrate, but near shoreHighest diversity
Profundal Zone
Twilight. Fish who like cold/dark water
Benthic
Dark and cold, bottom of lake
Source Zone
Snow melts, rapids, fast and cold water
Transition Zone
Fast flowing water, not rapids
Floodplain zone
water loses moentum and branches off 
Overturns
equalize temperature. Oxygen is brought to the top and only happens in areas that have seasons
Thermocline
thin line where temperature is different
Oligotrophic Lake
Poorly nourished. Newly formed
Eutrophic Lake
Well nourished, excessive plant growth
Cultural Eutrophication
Human inputs of nutrients, accelerate the eutrophication process. DEAD ZONE
Inland Wetlands
act like natural sponges, Provide a variety of wildlife haibitats 
Mitigation Banking
It is an agreemen to restore whatever wetlands you ruin
To Test water quality
Smell, colour, bacteria, turbirty (water clarity) Nitrogen, phosphorus, pH, examine what’s living in it
Macroinverabrates
Aquatic, macro, no spine.

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Intolerant: dies easily. GOODTolerant: doesn’t die easily. BAD

The EPT. Midge ratio
total number of intolerant organisms (EPT) with total of midges