Aswell as aesthetic appeal in architecture, consideration of the measure in humanneeds and comfort are related to user’s flow and movement are critical, to giveownership and sense of belonging to users could improve the level ofsatisfaction.
Factors of human needs contribute to the way we perceive andexperience our emotions towards space, from designing consideration to thearrangement of the internal layout are essential to responses addressingconsideration of human needs such as sunlight, temperature, wind directionsdirectly affect functions and user’s behaviour.Althoughhuman needs are agreeably an important factor, it is rarely central toarchitectural designs concept and consideration. Many believe architecture’sprimary purpose is to provide space and shelter corresponding to the feature ofdifferent activities in an aesthetically appealing design. Argument stating inBody, Memory and Architecture, notes that “architecture is highly specializedsystem with a set of prescribed goals rather than a sensual social artresponsive to real human desire and feelings.
” (Rob Imrie and Peter Hall 2001:12) describes the emphasis on aesthetic of architecture in favour of sensoryand most often the importance of our needs and sense are underestimated causediscomfort, stress and confusions even in many recent grand designs. Inboth western and eastern historical society underground stands with a negativeimage, such as war, buried, hidden, additionally various social beliefs fromancient time described the underground world as “Hell”. Chinese culture beliefof Buddhism and Taoism relate as “diyu” which means death, resulting in anoverall negative connotation and impression of underground space. Atraditionally underground level is only used as storages, car parks,transportation, but with the expansion gives underground level began toincorporate with various activities such as restaurants and retails cause usersto spend a longer period of time in the underground level. Underground space istypically described as an isolated enclosed environment trap below the surfaceof the earth, with no direct access to outdoor space and outdoor environmentssuch as light and air, no view of outdoor activity which differ from theenvironment we are used to.
2.1.1 Light Lighting is considerately a prime and complex element in Architecturedesign. Sufficient light allows us to see surrounding connecting to how safe wefeel within the environment. The level of light needed varies depending by thedifferent activities, generally in workspaces which require a minimum of200lux, more detailed workshop room for engineering detailed drawing, requiremore lighting to 750lux, lower level of light is needed in spaces such aswalkway and corridor to approximately 50lux.
Building able to provide occupant a good standard of overall lightingenvironment can impact on health, individual comfort and perception, and inbroader society and economy term. Natural light provides an important source ofvitamin D, also associated with our mood, enhance morale, and reduce fatigueand eyestrain. Many studies prove that sufficient lighting in offices,industrial and retail can improve user’s productivity levels and give a greatersatisfaction level. In addition, itIncreases the level of alertness and improves our performance throughout theday. Different light level throughout the day aligns our biological body clockthe circadian rhythm.
In underground environments, lighting has to be considered carefully;mechanic lighting is used instead of daylight. Lack of light can cause animpact on our body’s health from depression, poor immunity, emotional stressand other physic concern. Lack of both natural or artificial light cause strainand permanent damage cause loss of focus, better lighting offers better focusand concentration, disturb our 24 hourscycle natural clock ‘circadian rhythm’, which regulate the body system eveninfluence sleep patterns.2.1.2 Temperature The’Workplace Health, Safety and Welfare Regulation 1992, 7 deals’ correspondingto the aspect of the working environment and workplace, the temperature shouldbe reasonable, however, the law does not state an exact range of temperature tofollow.
The temperature in a building environment is also difficult to control,thermal comfort level connects and changes depending factors including; airtemperature, humidity, mean radiation, air velocity, temperature, and personalfactors such as clothing insulation, work rate, and metabolic heat. Airtemperature varies depending on the kind of activity happening and the meanradian temperature; air entering the building compared to the radiation givenoff from the body.Wellventilated buildings provide a better level of air quality, the air quality canimpact upon the level of work productivity, stress level, and bad air qualityor air flow would cause the feeling of fatigue, malaise, and anxiety leads to aheadache, confusion reducing physical and mental performance. Long-termexposure to pollutant air quality can lead to behavioural and mood changes withslower motor respond and other functional deviations. Bad air quality or indoorpollution can trigger allergic symptoms and may possibly have a riming effecton an individual’s susceptibility to simultaneous or subsequent exposure ofother outdoor allergens; bad indoor quality can also cause asthma epically forchildren. Living in a bad airflow space for longer terms can lead to ‘SickBuilding Syndrome’ contributing to mass psychogenesis illness, allergens,carcinogens, neurotoxins, immunotoxin, and irritants to the nose.
2.1.3 View What we see allows us to perceivein direction and affect how we remember the space; a view of naturalenvironment relaxes our feeling and we feel more secure to be able to see theimmediate surroundings.
Recent years there is a growing action for architectsto introduce greenery and landscaping inside the building to create a bettervisual implication internally, good visual inside the building with a clearflow of direction often leads to a better flow of people.In recent architecture, access tobetter view through the window and well-decorated interior almost represent thequality of living, it has a close relationship with light and our perception ofspace and how we perceive the space. Being able to see into a familiar sense ofspace gives a visual comfort, appraise to be more attractive, and to be in abetter mood, more satisfied and engage with the environment, and to be aware ofthe immediate surroundings providing a sense of direction and safety of thespace. One of the main issue discreteview of the environment in underground space is the causes of confusion andaccessibility in space, we lose the sense of direction resulting in a feelingof isolation and fear of being tapped. In such spaces, we sometimes feelclaustrophobic and poor mental well-being as we are fear of the unknown. 2.1.4 Smell Inthe usual environment we are used to being in, our conscience smell of space isoften forgotten but often implicates on our memories of the specific area.
Spaces with the present smell of nature, flowers, sea, and even food haveproven to be a strong sense which has the ability to attract people fromdistance, it allows users to be more willing to stay for a longer period oftime, In an enclosed space, factors from air humidity and air qualitycontribute to the changes of smell naturally. Smell is difficult to control in architecture, as many factors impact onthe change; environmental factors such as the building environment and personalfactors such as the type of activities occurring and the number of people inthe room. Smell is often influenced, Even so, the lack of control ofventilation and airflow could cause the unpleasant smell, affecting the senseof comfort and willingness to stay in the particular space. 2.
1.5 Noise Noise istransmitted in various ways mainly divided in human, mechanical, and ournatural environment, such as road traffic, conservations. Familiar noiseenables us to ensure our immediate surroundings, the activity happening, and awardingof any dangerous in surrounding. However pollutant noise impact on health isincreasingly recognized, long-term exposure to noise in workplace damage tohearing, causes annoyance and cognitive performance, in worst cases suffer fromhearing loss. Furthermore, noise disruption increases the chances ofhypertension, strokes and myocardial infarction.