ATOC exam 2

The main salt ion in seawater, based on mass (weight %) is ________?
Cl-, Chloride
The average salinity of the world’s oceans in approximate 35 percent.

True of false?

What is the oceans average salinity? (%)
Sodium (Na+) is the most abundant positive ion in the worlds oceans. (T/F)
The surface waters in the northern pacific ocean (20-40 degrees north latitude) are more saline than the surface waters in the northern Atlantic Ocean. (T/F)
The average residence time in the deep oceans of Antarctic Bottom Water is over 1000 years. (T/F)
The thermohaline conveyor belt is important for the earth system because it plays a dominant role in recycling of nutrients. (T/F);
Cold, saline water is formed in the North Atlantic and in the weddell sea of antarctica? (T/F)
The oceans are becoming increasingly more salty with time due to input of evaporite deposits from shallow seas. (T/F)
The transport of heat poleward by the oceans in the northern hemisphere peaks at a value of 3 billion megawatts at a latitude of _____?
20 degrees North
The total northern heat transport in the northern hemisphere is about how large?;
6 billion megawatts
If one starts with 100 atoms of radioactive 14C, how many atoms are left after 2 half lives?
14C (“Carbon 14”) is a useful tracer of changes in the ocean because it is radioactive with a half-life of about ______ years.

Satellite measures of cholophyll pigment show where high concentrations of phytoplankton can be found near the ocean surface. (T/F)
The deep ocean is rich in nutrients because when large organisms die, they sink to the bottom of the oceans where they slowly decompose, releasing those nutrients. (T/F)
Some areas of India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar experience as much as _____ of rainfall during the month of July, and as little as _____ of rainfall in the month of January. ;
16 inches(July), 0-2 Inches (January)
Which of the following locations see more precipitation in winter (January) than in summer (July)?
The US Pacific Northwest (Portland, Seattle, Vancouver)
The ocean gyres generally move in a counterclockwise direction in both the northern and southern hemispheres, (T/F)
The surface ocean does not circulate as a direct response to the surface heating. Instead, surface temperature play a more indirect role by influencing the pattern of global winds that, in turn, determine the circulation of the upper ocean.(T/F);
Where the south equatorial and North Equatorial currents meet in the pacific Ocean, there is a “counter current” that actually carries water at the equator in an direction opposite that of the equatorial currents. (T/F)
Winds at 40-60 degrees latitudes in both hemispheres tend to blow from the west, which causes ocean currents at these high latitudes of flow eastward, (T/F)
The northern hemisphere, the coriolis effect and friction combine to push the surface ocean current in what angle and direction and relative to the wind?
20-45 degrees to the right
100 meters below the ocean surface, water moves in what direction relative to currents at the surface?
180 degrees (directly opposite)
Due to Ekman transport, surface waters in the center of the major ocean gyres actually pile up and form a region of convergence.

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At the boundary between ocean and land, Ekman transport causes upwelling or downwelling, depending on the direction of the winds at the surface. (T/F)
What is the name given to the top 60-100 meters of the ocean?
The “surface zone”
What is the sharp transition i density with depth called in the first k of the ocean?
The pycnocline
What is the gradient in salinity that occurs in the upper ~1 km of the ocean called?
The halocline
The actual pump that drives the Hadley Circulation is release of _____ during convection.
latent heat
While tropical circulation is dominated by Hadley circulation, mid-latitude circulation and weather are controlled by ______.
The location of the polar front zone and mixing of cold polar air with warm air form the tropics
The term ____ refers to a seasonal change in the direction of surface winds.;
The greatest summer/winter temperature differences are seen______?
over siberia (central russia)
Match the geographic region with the maximum observed annual temperature variation (summer-winter) in that region:CanadaSiberia;AustraliaSouth AfricaHawaii
Canada—45 degrees CSiberia— 60 degrees CAustralia—- 15 degrees CSouth Africa— 20 degrees CHawaii—3-5 degrees C 
The intertropical convergence zone shifts all the way from 20 degN latitude in July to 20 degS lat. in January over Africa, but remains south of the equator in July and January over South America. (T/F) 
The southern oceans surrounding Antarctica (60-70 degS latitudes) are characterized by high pressures in summer and low pressures in winter.


Over Siberia the average surface pressure is high in winter (January). (T/F)
At 40 degN latitude, the average surface pressures in July are low over both the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. (T/F)
_______ is the term used to describe the larger range of climate extremes over land compared to over the oceans.
When water changes phases, heat is exchanged between that water and the environment. Match the type of process with the direction of heat exchange (use A for absorbed and R for released)1. Evaporation2. Condensation3.

Sublimation4. Freezing 5. Melting 

1. A2. R3. A4. R5. A
The merging of air masses that are moving inward toward a low-pressure region
the movement of air outward from a region in the atmosphere
The polar front zone
the equator-ward moving cold air meets the warm air moving poleward from the subtropics producing a zone of steep temperature gradients
The coriolis effect
the concept applies to surface winds is the apparent tendency for a fluid (air or water) moving across earth’s surface to be deflected from its straight-line path
seasonal reversal in the surface winds
the circulation of gyres is clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere
Ekman Spiral
The deeper below the surface the farther each layer is deflected to the right or left of the surface layer
where convergence occurs, the accumulated water causes it to sink
The rising of cooler water to the surface to replace war, divergent surface water
The transition zone between the surface zone and the deep ocean is on the order of a kilometer in thickness and is characterized with a rapid increase in density with increasing water depth
Salinity rises rapidly with increasing depth
the transition where the temperature drops rapidly with increasing depth