This sector is largely depend upon the funds provided by the external agencies and large proportion of Nags depends up on the government grants and funds, while there are various Nags having ‘not for profit’ approach, hence, managing HER Is great challenge before this sector. In India Nags are contributing handsomely to the betterment of scores of needy lives daily. How is this being achieved? By adopting different programs, drives and methods social organizations are supporting various deserving causes to remedy difficult situations.Education for slum children is a noble cause and has many MONGO takers. MONGO funds re available to pay the educational fee of deserving students even up to college levels. Free schools are run In full time and part time modes for the benefit of working children. For young adults, industry based training courses are offered and after successful course completion, they are placed in good jobs or helped to set up their own business. Computers being the order of the day, social foundations are not far behind In making them part and parcel of social service In India.

Apart from children, another main focus area happens to be uplift of women. The idea behind women empowerment is that when a woman’s lot improves, she takes err family forward too. Self employment through basic training in areas like handicrafts, data entry, manufacturing sector etc and loans to start off work help women to stand on their own legs and support their families in turn. The scene of companies and groups from abroad. This is definitely helping the Nags to reach out to a larger segment of the deserving poor and give aid in the form of free food, medication, homes, education etc.An effective and efficient practice of HARM is one of the essential requisites of any organization for sustainable growth and continuity. It has been observed that, overall rookeries and working of organizations in MONGO sector is largely depends up on human resources and funds as compared to the industrial sectors.

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This paper is presented with the appropriate discussion on the keywords appeared above in section-II and prior to this, aims, objectives and research methodology have been presented in Section-I.Section-I Aims and Objectives of the Study Basic aim of this research paper is to throw the light on the challenges faced in the MONGO sector with special reference to the HARM practices. The primary objective of this study is to understand the working of the MONGO sector. HARM is essential for operation of any sector thus; this is the second objective of this study to understand current trends and latest HARM practices applied in this sector. To assess the satisfaction of employees working in this field with reference to leading MONGO of this sector in Maharajah’s state is the third objective of this sector.Scope and limitations of the study In this study more emphasize is given on HARM practices namely, Planning, Recruitment, Training and Development, Performance appraisal and formulating HER policy followed in Catatonia, Pun. These observations from studying Catatonia have men generalized to the MONGO sector at district level.

It is understood that generalizations made in this paper are based up on general approach of the employees and directors of the Catatonia towards MONGO sector. These generalizations are time specific and place specific. Might be other No’s HARM practices differ slightly due to their vision, mission and objectives.Research methodology of the study Sole case study method is employed in this study. The paper is based on primary data as well as secondary data. Primary data has been obtained by discussion with the concern HER professional in the Catatonia, and staff members.

Dry. Sudan Katharine is the key person visited and interviewed deeply for this paper. She has 23 years of experience in MONGO sector. The secondary data has been obtained through the reference books, published materials and web sites.

The discussions held in interviews were based on pre-structured questions which belong to the aims and objectives of the study. 1 .The more emphasis is given on employee satisfaction rather than monetary remuneration 2. Attracting and managing professional talent is major challenge before HER managers in this sector. Section – II In the title of research primarily three keywords have been appeared.

Consequently, belonging to these keywords appeared, this section-II remarks are divided in to three parts. Therefore, part first gives brief theoretical and practical aspects of HARM Practices, Trends and challenges in MONGO sector, further Part Second and third presents brief details regarding MONGO sector in Maharajah’s state and profile of MONGO: Catatonia, respectively. Art I – MONGO sector A non-governmental organization (MONGO) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any government. The term originated from the United Nations (UN), and is normally used to refer to organizations that do not form part of the government and are not conventional for- profit business. In the cases in which Nags are funded totally or partially by governments, the MONGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization.The term is usually applied only to organizations that pursue some wider social aim that has political aspects, but that are not overtly political organizations such as political parties.

Unlike the term “intergovernmental organization”, the term “non- governmental organization” has no generally agreed legal definition. In many restrictions, these types of organization are called “civil society organizations” or referred to by other names. L The number of internationally operating Nags is estimated at 40,000. 2 National numbers are even higher: Russia has 277,000 Nags;3 India is estimated to have around 3. Million Nags in year 2009, which is one MONGO for less than 400 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centre in India.

Definition of MONGO Nags are difficult to define and classify due to the term’s inconsistent use. An No’s orientation refers to the type of activities an organization takes on. These activities eight include environmental, developmental, or advocacy work.

Professor Peter Willets, from the City University of London, argues the definition of Nags can be interpreted differently by various organizations and depending on a situation’s context.He defines an MONGO as “”an independent voluntary association of people acting together on a continuous basis for some common purpose other than achieving government office, making money or illegal activities. ” In this view, two main types of Nags are recognized according to the activities they pursue: operational and campaigning No’s. Their activities are unrestricted; thus operational Nags may need to campaign and campaigning Nags may need to take Legal status The legal form of Nags is diverse and depends upon home grown variations in each country’s laws and practices.However, four main family groups of Nags can be found worldwide:5 Unincorporated and voluntary association, Trusts, charities and foundations. Companies not Just for profit, Entities formed or registered under special MONGO or non-profit laws Characteristics of Voluntary Organizations The number of voluntary organizations has been able to grow and advance because they have certain advantages in approaching and accessing people.

Some of the important characteristics of Nags which are absent in government machinery, are as follows: The flexibility in their approach; The nearness to people and the ability to interact with them; The ability to mobile local constituency and resources; and The ability to get feedback and adapt a programmer according to local needs Part II – HARM Practices, Latest trends and challenges in MONGO sector The Liberalizing-prevarication-Globalization (LIP) era has opened up the arena of governance, allowing greater and more direct participation of the private sector in the management of public affairs.In the changing world, it has been realized that market or State intervention alone cannot create a favorable environment for the development of society. The performance of both these institutions depends upon the nature of civil society participation. It is therefore imperative to promote public- private partnerships that are sustainable and effective. Such a partnership would entail the government, civil society organizations and the corporate sector working in collaboration for the benefit of the larger public, particularly for the disadvantaged, marginality and the poor.HARM Practices It has been widely accepted that the Human Resource is the most important and critical resource for any organization has. In private and public discussions Social institutions like Nags Miff have always raised the issue of inadequate and untrained manpower.

At the same time, it has been one of the most neglected managerial functions in the Miff & Nags. At current growth rates, the Miff would find it difficult to manage performance unless a systematic approach to HER management is adopted.State of the sector regarding HER planning, recruitment and deployment In Indian micromanage sector, HER is the most neglected function even among best Miff. The following lists out the current practices with respect to planning, recruitment and deployment. Planning: In most of the Indian Miff / Nags planning for HER is mostly ad-hoc. There Miff is mostly quantitative in nature and used mostly to determine how much new recruitment and promotions they will have to make in the next one year or so.

More often than not this planning is done to estimate the salary expenses which would feed into the financial projections required to be submitted to the financial institutions for their loans proposals. Most of the required manpower at the field bevel is available locally and with a systematic training these recruits are able to pick up the assigned tasks well. Recruitment: There are wide-ranging practices for recruitment for staff at different levels in the micromanage and MONGO sector. Most of the field staffs are recruited locally through advertisements in the local newspapers.They also often recruit staffs who have been involved in other development activities of the organization that may not always be suitable for a micromanage programmer.

Training and deployment: Often a formal training is bypassed and the employees are put straight on their Jobs. This results in reduced productivity of staff, high cost of operations and at times lower level of motivation of the staff. More worrying are the instances where the middles and senior management staff are transferred to the micromanage programmer without adequate orientation.This would leads to a confused strategy and overall poor performance of the organization. Challenges to the MONGO sector Nags were intended to fill a gap in government services, but in countries like India, Nags are gaining a powerful stronghold in decision making.

In the interest of sustainability, most donors require that Nags demonstrate a relationship with overspent. State Governments themselves are vulnerable because they lack strategic planning and vision.Nags in India are under regulated, political, and recipients of large government and international donor funds. Nags often take up responsibilities outside their skill ambit. Governments have no access to the number of projects or amount of funding received by these Nags.

There is a pressing need to regulate this group while not curtailing their unique role as a supplement to government services. The scale and variety of activities in Nags has presented with need to balance the pressures of centralization and decentralization.By centralizing Nags, particularly those that operate at an international level, they can assign a common theme or set of goals. Conversely it is also advantageous to decentralized as this increases the chances of an MONGO behaving flexibly and effectively to localized issues. 8 Of course, the objective is to be a do-Goode.

Says Shook Shoal of Development Alternative: “There are several Nags that play an active watch dog role in the Indian society particularly where they have a sector focus such as environment, livelihood, habitat, governance, etc.This is, however, not the only role that Nags play. They are extremely good delivery agents of support services to the poor that have an immediate impact on their degree of empowerment, economic security and living expertise that the government and the private sector can use to increase their effectiveness. ” Weak foundation Traditionally, many Indian Nags began life with one person’s dream to make a difference to society. They went out and set up Nags, which gathered strength and resources over time.

But with size came the problems of age, obsolescence and irrelevance. The problems are compounded because most people believe they operate at margins of the mainstream economy. But a few numbers dispel this myth.. Clearly, Indian’s do-goodies need help in terms of professional management skills. In fact, most Nags have volunteers with good intentions, but poor management expertise. What they need to understand, perhaps, is that in today’s complex world, running organizations – whether for profit, or not – needs more professional skills.Part Ill – Profile of Catatonia Catatonia, Pun Address: Head Office Women Training Centre & Resource Centre Liaison Office Moot Chaw, Uruguayan, Talk Eked, District pun 410505 Sang Classic, Wad Road, Uruguayan, Talk Eked, District Pun 87, Decca Gymkhana, pun 411004 Catatonia, a developmental organization established in 1993, is one of the pioneers of community based micro finance institutions in Maharajah’s, India.

It has been a catalyst in facilitating the process to get the rural women out of the vicious cycle of poverty.Catatonia has provided these women the much needed social security and a platform which can address their financial and social needs. Catatonia is a not for profit trust registered under the Bombay public trust act 1950. The receipts of Catatonia comprise of grants from funding agencies as well as earned income from he training services offered to Nags, government officials and others. Organization of Catatonia comprises of: Board of Trustees, and Advisor Interns, Fellows and Volunteers Staff Catatonia has an 86 staff members varying in age, education, professional experience and social background.Educational background of Catatonia staff ranges from less than tenth standard, to post graduate degrees in Business Administration, Computer Applications, Philosophy and Social Work, to doctoral degree in Social Work. Fifty eight percent of total staff is women.

Adding the rest of team, not only increases the above mentioned variance, but also adds in factors such as varying nationalities. Catatonia believe that this blend of wisdom coupled with education provides us the versatility which helps us in understanding myriad problems and coming up with sensitive approaches to facilitate self help.Vision A gender Just, equitable and self-reliant society where women have access to and control over financial and other resources. Mission Building capacities of rural poor especially women and youth by promoting and strengthening self-reliant and sustainable institutions to enable them to led the recess of development for a better quality of life.

Objectives Build local capacities of rural poor, especially women to form self–reliant people’s institutions.Develop village level people’s institutions to be the core of development process Evolve strong, sustainable partnerships of local institutions with local government machinery as well as other local organizations Evolve consensus in the formulation of gender equitable, village level development plan in the areas of health, water & sanitation and organic farming Build knowledge and resource base related to self help groups and other sustainable people’s institutions for rural placement and women’s empowerment Create platforms for integrated learning space for various partners involved in rural development through networking and convergence Programs of Catatonia are mutually reinforcing and try to address social issues in a holistic manner. However, to aid understanding, Catatonia have tried to classify their efforts into three inter-connected layers as illustrated in the diagram. Grassroots: Activities in which we directly work with the community.

Capacity Building and Research: Activities in which they try to build capacities of individuals or institutions who, in turn, work with the community. Networking and Policy Advocacy: Activities in which network partners learn from and share Catatonia’s experience with the various stakeholders of the SSH movement.Although, all activities in each of the layers are equally important, Catatonia strongly believe that continuous learning from our grassroots activities helps in designing effective capacity building programs and correctly influencing required policies. Catatonia have implemented various concepts for self help movement in rural blocks (Techies) of Pun district namely, Eked, Moonbeam, Jejuna (These are tribal declared blocks) and 18 District of Maharajahs State.

The brief introduction of some major activities are given below- SSH and Federation Promotion Crag is the name of our Community Based Micromanage program. Catatonia is one of the pioneers of community based micro-finance institutions in Maharajah’s, India. It facilitated the formation of Grahame Manila Assimilated Gangs, the first federation of self help groups (Sigh) in Maharajah’s.

Initially Sigh came together to form an informal association which was later registered as a charitable society. GYMS is located in the Eked block of Pun district. As of July 2009, Catatonia has facilitated the setting up of fourteen federations in even districts of Maharajah’s; seven federations in Pun district, one federation each in Mohammedan, Nashua, Strata, Signaling and Underarm districts, and two federations in Thule district. The federations in the Pun district are located in Eked, Moonbeam, Jejuna, Daunt, Manchuria, Serigraph and Belle blocks. Goal To provide equitable and affordable financial services to women through the formation of federations in all districts of Maharajah’s.Objectives To organize women into strong and sustainable self help groups, clusters and federations as a forum for sharing, learning, planning and monitoring To provide uncial services such as savings, credit and insurance to the members To promote federation linkage with institutions like the Small Industry Development Bank of India and Friends for Women World Banking to meet the financial needs of the members To provide technical services to the federations like audit, MIS, financial management, facilitating ratings and linkages with banks.

January Process Goal To build and train women in the areas of gender sensitive laws, Sigh and government programmer as a January. Objectives Train Legal Kansas in gender sensitive laws, counseling skills to resolve family robbers and spread awareness about women’s legal rights Train SSH Kansas in record keeping, management and monitoring and to resolve problems in She Train Government Kansas about government programmer and effective implementation of these programmer Section-Ill Part: l- Analysis of the data A. Status of HARM in Catatonia Catatonia has appointed full time professional for the HER management.This HER is MBA in HER and having core experience in profession. Overall policies practiced in Catatonia’s staff are Maternity leave policy, General Leave policy, Award policy, Recruitment Policies.

Catatonia is implementing Recruitment & Selection process according to selection policies, accordingly, various interviews are scheduled and various tests conducted for appropriate selection of employees. Modification in systems is in process for performance appraisal process. 1. Challenges in HARM functions available, hence in house management development programs have been started. Foreign Interns, Internal executive development, Advertisement, campus interview are the various sources recruitment in Catatonia.

Performance Appraisal: It is commented that in Catatonia Exact feedback system has not set yet, looking at new project about communication through advance technology o get proper in time feedback on performance. Training & Development: Catatonia is facing further difficulties in Training & Development – Lack of coordination, lack of trainer for value education, Language (ENGLISH) problem for overseas exposure. Foreign interns placed for interaction with staff. Employee training is major function of HARM at board level hence it is a part of project process and depends up on project implementation strategy 2. Entry level qualification: Any person having attitude and desire to give something to community, preferably 10th for field staff and then according to skill set required s per Job profile 3.

Work roles management: Overall Job profile is depends on project objectives, hence, review to the extent of Job profile shall be conducted every six months to ensure proper alignment of project objectives with work roles. 4. Industrial Relations: Catatonia has been set mechanism to resolve grievances and conflicts at the respective levels. If any dissatisfaction arise about policies then board of directors take care of it.

Participatory process has been utilized to solve grievances. Employees also have given freedom to present their own opinions. 5. Future Requirement: SSH field staff, COO, Resource Inflammation, Sir. Training Officer 6. Retention Practices: Catatonia allowed to their staff a greater positioning, Role shifting, New learning, Signatory rights, increments 7.

Scarcity of professionals: Because of less salary professional not coming to this sector, working in MONGO is a great challenge in terms of regular changes in roles which is depends on project and situation. Hence Catatonia trying to develop their own employees to become professionals C. Employee Satisfaction Analysis of Satisfaction has been presented in following table and chart.

It is clearly indicated from above analysis that Management systems are rated slightly above from normal level of satisfaction. Satisfaction related to human resource management is rated below average. Comparatively, satisfaction related to sustainability is scored higher than other factors.

Part: 2- Inferences and Recommendations, Summary and Conclusions A.Hypothesis Testing remuneration Conclusion- As per analysis of the study it is clearly understood that MONGO sector is not capable to pay higher remuneration still there motivated work 2. Attracting and managing professional talent is major challenge before HER managers in this sector. Conclusion- It is clearly shown in comparison between MONGO and Micromanage sector that attracting and managing professionals are great challenge to both the sectors.

Hence this hypothesis is accepted in this study. Summery and Conclusions Challenges faced in the MONGO sector According to research MONGO sector is facing following challenges- 1. Fund raising 2. Lack of professional skills 3.Strategy to overcome implementation of organizational change 4.

Lack of Trainers for value education 5. Proper system of performance appraisal 6. Difficulties in attracting and managing professional work force C. Working of the MONGO sector As mentioned in key words explanation MONGO sector is totally depend on project funds. There are various working models operating in MONGO. But common similarity found is social welfare in their vision, mission. There is diversifying focus area for social up lift. As we look at Catatonia, then it has wider spread over community through rural poor women so SSH is the tool and platform for discussing issues of rural women.

Then accordingly resources are embroiled in systematic manner to solve needs of society through empowered women. This process compromises continuous interaction with rural women, effective research, and proposal writing for source inflammation and finally finding HER to implement this strategy. Hence social needs are greatly varying in nature give rise to diversifying objectives, terms, conditions and requirement of HER skill sets. So this is the great challenge in front of MONGO HARM practices.

D. Current trends and latest HARM practices Planning It depends on the nature, scope and objectives of the organization. In Catatonia, annual action plan has been carried out as a part of their working strategy.In this core planning HER planning also included depending on the project requirement. So s far as related to the MONGO sector independent HER planning has not carried out.

It is intervened with the project planning. Recruitment MONGO sector has versatile Job profiles for their employees; hence recruitment is always important function of the MONGO. But it is observed that MONGO sector focuses on social attitude, awareness of value education of the candidate as criterion for selection.

For this purpose internal resource development is the better option for recruitment in the Catatonia as well as for MONGO sector. Due to limitations of funds retired personnel are always welcomed as volunteers.