Australia

It Is the world’s smallest continent, but the sixth largest country by total area. The country Is made up of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and several smaller islands. It is the sixth largest country in the world, comprising three basic ethnic groups. Whites make up 92% of the population, Asians seven percent, and aboriginal and other groups comprise Just one percent of the population. Both countries are culturally diverse and, to a degree, embrace multiculturalism.Although quite similar In ethnicity, the united States and Australia have different approaches to ethnic stratification and both could benefit Trot studying ten emulates can NAS mace In order to conclave true ethnic maroon, quality and multiculturalism for both countries.

Because Australians tend to embrace multiculturalism to a greater degree than do citizens of the United States, ethnic stratification has not been a driving factor for Australians. Australian multiculturalism, seen as a strategy of managing cultural diversity and a social policy – has been often misunderstood and confused with tenth-cultural pluralism and assimilation ‘melting pot” (Confusions About Multiculturalism, 2011, p. 1). In the present day, ethnic stratification is not a large issue. Australians embrace multiculturalism and allow minorities to retain their ultra identifies and traditional lifestyles. The country is culturally diverse and grants equal rights and opportunities to all citizens regardless of culture.

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However, this has not always been the case. Unlike the United States, Australia was originally only settled by the British, which formed its dominate national culture. Originally settled as a penal colony, as a way for Britain to continue to transport prisoners overseas in continuance of their penal policy after the American Revolution, Australia was first settled by a group of about 1500 people in January 1788. Nearly half of this group was convicts. Over the years, approximately 160,000 prisoners were brought to Australia.The original penal colony ended after about 60 years, with the establishment of New South Wales in 1850 and what is now Tasmania in 1852. Western Australia was founded in 1830 by free immigrants and added convicts to its citizenry by its own choice until 1868.

Sadly, the convicts received better treatment than Australian natives. The government’s approach to the native Australian Aborigines was one of extinction. “Extinction is an extreme of pluralism that is more severe than genocide because its perpetrators see and treat their victims as animals hat needed to be exterminated.

Although Australian Aborigines now participate in the country’s multicultural society, they remain a disadvantaged minority. ” (Jack, 2012, Section 12. 3, peg. 3). By 2011, twenty-five percent of Australians were non- native. Far from its origins, Australia does have some ethnic problems today, but it is a mostly harmonious country that encourages and embraces multiculturalism. The country is respectful of the common core of institutions, rights and obligations and does not encourage discrimination, although there are often incidences of discrimination and prejudice.For example, almost 40% of Australians believe Muslim, Middle Eastern and Asian people do not fit in with Australian society.

Afghan and Sir Lankan refugees have also experienced discrimination and native Aboriginal people have been the targets of racial discrimination. African born blacks have also been the victims of discrimination, even though they are relatively recent arrivals to the country. “Population movements between Africa and Australia have a long history, originally starting in the sass.However, those who immigrated to Australia prior to 1991 were mainly African-born persons with European descent. The immigration of the majority of African-born persons of black ethnic African origin only started after the increase in the intake of humanitarian entrants after the sass”.

(Hurry, Marin, 2014, P. 189) Because of the long-standing tradition of assimilation to Australian culture, newer immigrants who do not fit these cultural norms often have trouble adapting because they seek to maintain their existing cultural identities.I nerve Is no legislation In Australia Tanat Incorporates a violent Dallas attack as a specials crime. There is, however, legislation in all States and Territories, making sexuality/ ace etc. Discrimination on the grounds of harassment and/or vilification, unlawful. There are vilification laws, but more is needed.

Currently, consequences of conviction for hate crimes could include fines and prison sentences. Australia does have a Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, which was established in 1986. It reports to the federal parliament through the Attorney General.Its goals including fostering understanding and protecting human rights, resolving complaints of discrimination, and holding public hearings into human rights issues of national importance. Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Legal System, N. D. P.

1). The lack of severe punishments is a likely contributor to ongoing problems of discrimination and social stratification present in Australia. Australians also have turned to other types of outlets to express their frustrations with different types of government policies.

For example, “Billboard Utilizing Graffiti Against Unhealthy Promotions’ (BUG I-JP) was a group of Australians who decided to counter what they believed to be the adverse effects of tobacco advertising on the wider public by devising graffiti campaigns. These campaigns occurred predominately in Sydney, but also throughout other Australian cities, in the late sass and throughout the sass” (Dietz, M, 2014, p. 2).

The type of activism displayed by this group against tobacco use could also be utilized by others to eliminate the current problems of ethnic stratification and discrimination present in Australia. Some findings of studies on ethnic discrimination in Australia include A 2011 survey of academic staff in higher education revealed that more than 70% of Aboriginal academics and professional staff had experienced discrimination and assist attitudes in their workplaces; Only 18. 6% of employers had taken positive action to address discrimination and racism, and Anti-discrimination laws have failed to result in any successful prosecutions since they were introduced in 1989, despite more than 27 public complaints about alleged breaches. Indigenous peoples around the world have had their societies and power bases transformed in the last two to five hundred years as a result of European colonialism. ” (David, Bruno, Barker, Bryce, and Imminence, Ian J. , 2006.

, p. 4) Human rights expert Emily Howe states “Human rights do not belong only to the sorority and we cannot be satisfied Just because the majority is protected. Human rights belong to each and every one of us, and the government must ensure those rights for each and every one of us. ” (Howe, E, 2010, P. 1).As the director of Australia’s Human Rights Law Resource Centre, Howe points out that admitting that Australia has a racism problem is the first step to fixing it. She further postulates that many Australians prefer to stick to old ways and have difficulty embracing new cultural ideals.

In Australia, anti-discrimination laws have failed to result in any successful prosecutions since they were introduced in 1989, despite more than 27 public complaints about alleged breaches, according to Gillian Miller, Chair of the National Tertiary Education Union’s Indigenous Policy Committee.Clearly, Australians need to take a harder approach to dealing with discrimination and ethnic stratification. Failure to do so will only compound the problem facing many Australian citizens today. A comparison Detente Australia Ana e n et states snows Tanat ten unlace s has at least seven different ethnic groups, as compared to essentially three in Australia. Like Australia, Whites make up the largest percent at 79. 6%.

Blacks comprise 12. 85%, Asians 4. 3%, – compared to Australia’s 7% – American Indians and Alaskan natives at . 97%, native-Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders . 18% and two or more races, 1. 61%. CIA World Fastback, N. D.

, United States, People and Society, p. 1). Ethnic stratification continues to occur in employment, housing, education, lending, and government in the United States, at somewhat higher rates than in Australia. Ethnic conflict and discrimination in the United States has occurred since before the before the Civil War and continues today. While we have made substantial gains, rejoice, discrimination, and institutional racism continue to affect blacks and other ethnic groups. The Civil Rights movement of the sass has been a defining factor in the attempts to remove racism, discrimination and segregation from U.S. Society.

Australia has not yet experienced a similar movement, and has experienced a recent rise in racism. “Experts attribute the rise in everyday racism to economic uncertainty, events like the surge in asylum seeker boat arrivals and the current political leadership that wants to weaken parts of the Racial Discrimination Act” (Mariner, C, 2014, p. 1) Racism is rutting Australian society, according to federal race discrimination commissioner DRP. Helen Kooks, and is taking its toll financially and culturally. Hate crime legislation is needed in Australia.

Hate crime legislation will often involve enhancing the punishment of an already criminal act” Walters, M, 2005, p. 1) While virtually every state in the United State has enacted hate crime legislation, no such legislation currently exists in Australia. . There are quite a few similarities between Australia and the United States. Both countries have a majority of white citizens and smaller percentages of black, Asian and mixed race citizens. Ethnic stratification occurs in the United States at a greater degree than in Australia, but it is by no means non-existent in Australia, and is, in fact, on the rise in Australia.Each country struggles with ethnic conflict, particularly whites versus members of the other ethnic minorities living in both countries. There are also instances of violence against the members of smaller ethnic groups against each other in both countries.

Examples of the similarities between the United States and Australia include similar ethnic groups, a predominately white population, and similar percentages of Asians in the country. Unfortunately, there are not as many similarities in laws for addressing ethnic stratification, racism, discrimination and hate crimes.Australia is lagging behind the United States in its recognition of, and punishment against, hate crimes. Differences among ethnic groups in Australia and the United States are evident in the more diverse population of the United States as compared to Australia. Again, both countries are predominately white and share a similar number of Asian citizens. However, while there are blacks in Australia, their number is so small that it doesn’t even register as a percentage point, whereas blacks re the second most populous group in the United States.The United States also has virtually no Aboriginal citizens, while this group is native to Australia.

Differences in ethnic stratification systems of Australia and the United States include less tolerance to this type of treatment in the United States than in Australia. Australian Aborigines nave especially Eden ten target AT ethnic stratification In ten unlace states, much more so than similar minority groups have been targeted in the United States. “Australian society has witnessed the persecution of Indigenous citizens for many ears. (Walters, M, 2005, p. 207) Other differences include stricter laws with harsher punishments against racism and discrimination in the United States than in Australia. Differences in ethnic conflict in Australia and the United States occur largely because of how each country was founded. Because the population of Australia is largely descended from British convicts left there hundreds of years ago, Australians tend to view all ethnicities as equal; whereas the United States was founded on the principle that “all men are created equal”.Blacks, who were mostly slaves at the inception of the Constitution, were considered property, not men, so they had no equal rights.

This is similar to the view taken by Australians regarding the native Aborigines. However, Australia’s response to the Aborigines was to attempt to exterminate the entire population, a brutal form of ethnic cleansing unmatched anywhere in the world. Even though this practice was eliminated hundreds of years ago, Aborigines still continued to suffer. Until the late sass, Australian Aborigines were subject to policies of discrimination that made it impossible for them either to assimilate or practice their own cultural traditions.

They were driven off their lands, and forbidden entry to European areas or the use of public facilities. Their children were either denied education or forcibly removed from their parents and sent to live with white families or in church-run schools (Creative Spirits Info, 2012). After World War II, the Australian government tried to force Aborigines to assimilate by taking away their remaining rights. (Jack, 2012, Section 12. 3, peg. 14). Despite all this, Aboriginal culture continues to flourish and has received international attention. Examples of differences garnered from research include articles on topics such as ND of life and hospice care ethnic differences, ethnic conflict in the United States as opposed to ethnic conflict in Australia, the differences in punishment for conviction of racism or other ethnic crimes, the lack of an Australian civil rights movement, and the rising incidences of prejudice and discrimination in Australia, where it seems to be falling in the United States.

All of these factors point to a rising incidence of ethnic stratification in Australia, and a lessened tolerance for this type of behavior in the United States. While there are both ethnic difference and ethnic similarities between the United States and Australia and each country has a rich and varied history of racial and ethnic tolerance, each country could learn more racial and ethnic tolerance from the other. Australia does seem to have a very low level of ethnic concentration and separation.It also boasts a high level of minority and immigrant political participation. Its main instances of discrimination seem to be focused on discrimination and economic alienation of Aboriginal peoples, and prejudice against migrants – refugees from South Asia, Middle East and Africa participation. (Confusions About Multiculturalism, 2011, peg.

1). While other instances of coordination and ethnic stratification exist, these are the most prominent.Since the Civil Rights movement, the United States has been very proactive in its attempts to end discrimination and segregation, and has enacted hate crime legislation to Impose nards punishments on tense convolute AT ante crimes . Slammer movement in Australia could help its citizens to understand the benefits that their society could gain by eliminating segregation of the Aboriginal people, enforcing strict punishments for those convicted of hate crimes and treating all citizens as productive members of Australian society. In turn, the United States could learn about truly embracing multiculturalism from the people of Australia.