Biosphere

How high does the biosphere go up into the air, and how low does it go into the ground?
41 km up3 km down
What is the best modern definition for “life”?
-Self reproduction-Stores information-Natural selection
What are the six kingdoms of life?
ArchaeaAnimaliaProtoctistaPlantaeMoneraFungi
species
A species is defined as any group of potentially interbreeding individuals.
population
Members of a species that live within a given area (in communication and capable of interbreeding).
biota (biotic community)
Assemblage of living entities (plant, animals, microbes)
Know the main trophic levels in a biotic community (biotic structure) and their subdivisions. There are two main types, and each of these can be further subdivided.
Autotrophs–>Photosynthetic, ChemosyntheticHeterotrophs–>Consumers, Necrophages
Approximately what percent of the biomass of one trophic level is passed on to the next trophic level?
10%
What are the non-feeding relationships mentioned in class?
CompetitionCommensalismMimicryMutualismSymbiosisHelotism
What is the difference between a habitat and a niche?
Area/physical environmentBehavior
What biological interaction leads to resource partitioning and niche specialization?
Competition
What is ecological succession, and what is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
New lifePioneer focus on throughput of energy and resourcesClimax focuses on sustainability
What abiotic factor is most important in determining the biome of an area, and what is the definition of a biome?
ClimateBiome – grouping of related ecosystems
What is the biome relationship to latitude and altitude?
Latitude mimics altitude
What do you call the transitional boundary between two biomes?
Ecotone
What are the six most common elements found in organisms, and what is the movement of material between the biosphere and the non-living components of the Earth called?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulfur
What are the four major biogeochemical cycles detailed in class?
CarbonNitrogenPhosphorousSulfur
In the carbon cycle, does the ocean act as a net source of carbon to the atmosphere or a net sink of carbon from the atmosphere?
Sink
Which element requires bacteria to become available for use by higher organisms?
Nitrogen
Which major biological element does not have an atmospheric component?
Phosphorous
Which element’s cycling is least understood?
Sulfur