Bioterrorismcan be traced back to 600 BC when Assyrian poisoned the well of their enemieswith fungus agents. Notably, this continued up to 20th century.
Bioterrorism is a terrorist activity, which involves the use of hurtful agentsand items as defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Theorigin of these products is from biological, which produces microorganism,which is very dangerous to human beings, animals and animals too, for exampleof these agents includes toxins, viruses, bacteria, and fungi. In simple words,bioterrorism is the use of biological weapon (Annas, 2002). In this case, bioterrorism is relatedwith healthcare as healthcare personnel needs to research, treat and preparefor any occurrence of such terror. The bioterrorism is carried out deliberatelyduring a war to cause health complications to the human body.Mainly,these agents are naturally found in the environment, but sometimes they are humanmade to make them stronger and resistant to the available medicines. Due to itseasy accessibility and inexpensive, they are widely spread. Consequently, itcauses both mental and physical damage to the affected group.
Mostly,bioterrorism is carried out to fulfill both political and social in a certainenvironment (Yih at el. 2004). These agentscan be spread into food, water, air and through contaminated hosts.
Accordingto the recent research biological agents is becoming popular among theterrorists. As a result, healthcare personnel and related stakeholders are veryconcern because bioweapons cause health advance problems to human beingscompared to chemical and nuclear weapons. Bioterrorismcan be grouped into three main categories namely A, B, C. category A comprisesof plague, botulism, anthrax, smallpox virus and viral hemorrhagic fever (Annas, 2002). Mainly, thiscategory can be spread from one person to another.PlaguePlagueis caused by the bacterium called Yersiniapestis. Notably is found in three forms namely, bubonic plague. It is themost known and affects lymph nodes.
The second is called septicemia, which causes internalbleeding and shock because it resides in the bloodstream. The last one iscalled pneumonia plague damages the respiratory area. Yersinia pestis is preferred during the warfare because it can stayalive in the air for one hour spreading aerosolized. Moreover, this bacteriumis found in rodent animals. Infected rats can pass this bacterium to humanbeings through biting of the flea. Immediate symptoms include; coughing, chestpain, fever, headache, bloody sputum and abdominal pain (Annas, 2002).
In particular, this bacterium can betreated if detected early but until today there is no specific vaccination tocontrol its occurrence. Its transmission is controlled by placing the patientin a concealed room, and its movement should be managed.AnthraxThis disease is caused by Bacillus anthracis bacterium. Notably, this condition is manifestedin three ways namely; gastrointestinal, cutaneous and pulmonary. Mostly, thisbacterium has some spores, which have a hard coat, which enables them to livein a cruel environment (Yih at el.
2004). Mostly, these spores are found in the soil,where they later infect the animals such as sheep, horses, and cattle whilegrazing. This disease is transmitted by inhalation, by ingestion if food iscontaminated and through contact with the rash. The perfect treatment for thiscondition is to administer antibiotics at early stages.BotulismMainly, this disease is caused by the toxin,which is produced by Clostridium botulinum bacterium (Siegel at el.
2007). Specifically, this condition is notcontagious from one person to another. It can either be inhaled or swallowedbut can also get into the human body through an open wound.
It is harmful tothe human body because it can cause temporary paralysis and can damage the nerves.Besides, it can lead to respiratory damage and can lead to death. Smallpox Smallpoxis a deadly viral disease, which affects people of all ages. In the 20thcentury, it caused the death of many people because it is contagious and can betransmitted from one person to another (Siegel at el. 2007). Itssymptoms are visible and easy to detect, for example, high fever, vomiting,painful rashes, backache, and headache.
It can be treated by vaccination ifdetected in four days after infection.Category B is easy quite to disseminate, but itlows mortality rates and moderate morbidity. Some of these diseases includeglanders, Q fever, melioidosis, rising, and typhus.
Lastly, category C containedits agents available and transmitted, like category B it also lows morbidityand mortality rate (Siegel atel. 2007). It entails diseasessuch as Nipah Virus, Hantavirus, and Multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MTB)severe acute respiratory syndrome. The danger of bioterrorism is rated tohealthcare in different ways, for example, it exposes security of all countyinto a high risk and the health of its citizens (Siegel at el. 2007). In the recent years Russian, Iraq, United States and Japan are goodexamples indicating how citizen and their security personnel were affected bythese bioterrorism attacks.
The first danger is the lack of preparedness ofhealthcare as bioterrorism is hard to detect and prevent its occurrences.Further, during bioterrorism event healthcare may have difficulties providingquality services to all patients (Wynia, Gostin, 2004). Inaddition, due to a large number of infected during bioterrorism attack; thereare not enough facilities to facilitate all patients.The number of health personnel may not beenough to take care of all patients during bioterrorism events (Siegel at el. 2007). Further, it is difficult to detect whenbioterrorism will occur hence making it hard for healthcare to plan.
Inaddition, there are most of the bioterrorism diseases do not have an immediatecure. As a result, if not discover at early stages it has high chances to advanceproblems or even death.The best way to eliminate bioterrorism is toreduce the availability of the agents used to make and prepare bioterrorismweapons (Wynia, Gostin, 2004). For example, in 2001 US introduced mitigationpolicies, among them includes biosecurity, which protects biological materialsfrom sabotage or theft. Mainly, this will assist in the control of bioterrorismattacks. Another, great idea to confront bioterrorism attack can by educatingcommunity worldwide of the importance of human life and health for each citizen(Yih at el. 2004).
In addition, they should be taught on the immediate andadvance consequences of using bioterrorism in any country. Lastly, thegovernment in all countries should introduce harsh penalties for victims foundintending to use or using bioterrorism materials. Consequently, this willdiscourage people from getting involved in such activities.The healthcare is more concern on the means toexpand its facilities to identify permanent treatment for bioterrorism diseases(Wynia, Gostin, 2004).
On the other hand, many governments arededicated to coming up with appropriate method to control any occurrence ofbioterrorism attacks. In this case, the community should come together toidentify the best way to stop any related bioterrorism attack. In conclusion,bioterrorism attacks are dangerous to all people in the world, and eachscientist and artist should report any attempt or suspicion to such attacks.