Chapter one is divided into five parts; namely: (1) Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study, (2) Statement of the Problem and the Hypothesis, (3) Significance of the Study, (4) Definition of Terms, and (5) Scope of Delimitation of the Study. Part One, Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study, presents the rationale for the choice of the problem and presents the Theoretical Framework upon which this study was anchored. Part Two, Statement of the Problem and the Hypothesis, enumerates the general and specific questions answered in the study and states the hypothesis tested.
Part Three, Significance of the Study, identifies the beneficiaries and benefits that could be derived from the results of the study. Part Four, Definitions of Terms, gives the conceptual and operational meanings of the important terms used in the study. Part Five, Scope and Delimitation of the Study, specifies the coverage and limitations of the study. Background and Theoretical Framework of the Study The human body is a perfect work of art for its symmetry & proportion. It can handle innumerable tasks ranging from the light to heavy up to the simple to intricate one wayback prehistoric times.
The interest of man towards the “human body” was been the subject of several investigations as documented by paintings & carvings on caves and other relics as collected by scientists. This curiosity of man towards this human body as a perfect work of art resulted to continuous & progressive studies causing this to sprout new fields like medicine and sports physiology. Several field of specialization focused on physical performance like altering individual natural speed and other biomotor abilities; while others classified and categorize the human body as to mesomorph, endomorph and octomorph.
From this, Body Mass Index (BMI) became popular in the field of physical education. Body mass index (BMI) process involves simple arithmetical manipulation to obtain the measurements ratio of weight to the square of height for determining if a person is overweight (between 25kg/m2 to 30 kg/m2) or obese (over 30kg/m2), as per World Health Organization standards for adults. As Asian populations develop negative health consequences at a lower BMI than Caucasians, some nations like Japan has redefined obesity as any BMI greater than 25kg/m2, while China uses a BMI greater than 28kg/m2.
Filipinos, being a variance of an oriental race, with almost the same physical description as our Japanese and Chinese counterparts, are highly advised to espouse the BMI ranges for Asians. The lowest normal should be 17. 9 kg/m2 for men and 15. 0 kg/m2 for women according to some experts. To find somebody’s BMI, first measure their weight (body mass in kilograms), secondly measure their height in meters and finally divide their weight by the square of their height. Physical fitness is “the ability to handle the task performed in everyday life with enough energy in reserve to enjoy leisure pursuits and deal with emergencies” (Safrit, 1995).
Pate (1983), proposed a more appropriate definition of fitness as “the capacity of the heart, blood vessels, lungs, and muscles to function at optimum efficiency. ” According to Dotson (1988), physical fitness is a state of well-being that allows people to perform daily activities with vigor, reduce risk of health problems, and participate in a variety of physical activities. (Foundations of Physical Fitness, Piamonte et al. , 2006) Physical fitness is but only one aspect of total fitness. Total fitness is the optional quality of life.
The highest quality of life includes intellectual, social, spiritual, and physical components. Mental alertness and curiosity, emotional feelings, meaningful relations with other humans, awareness of and involvement in societal strivings and problems, and physical capacity to accomplish personal goals with vigor appear to be essential elements of healthy life. These aspects of total fitness are interrelated; a high level in one of the areas enhances the other areas, and conversely, a low level in any area restricts the accomplishment possible in other areas.
(Foundations of Physical Fitness, Piamonte et al. , 2006) Physical fitness test is the assessment of the body’s level of capability to respond satisfactorily during manual work or leisure activity. This study employed a personally designed set of 4 kinds of fitness exercises composed of speed run, jumping rope, sit-up, and push-up, which are conceptualized to be valid sources of quantifiable manifestation of speed, balance, agility, flexibility, power, endurance, muscular strength, and motor abilities.
The physical superiority and fitness grade of participants under scrutiny can be roughly gauged by the shortness of time they run a 100 meter distance, by the number of hops they made in 60 seconds, and by the frequency of sit-up and push-up repetition they did for 1 minute per routine. Accepted fitness level standards for comparative analysis and rating purposes are yet to be formulated as there is much difficulty in finding a reference on this matter, to shed more light as our physical activity data were undergoing interpretation.
All of these body components and measurements, as well as the fitness tests and results, are deemed essential and indispensable for the BMI and Physical fitness performance of the BPE students to generate sound basis for the description, maintenance, normalization, and enhancement of the physicality and other relevant aspects sustaining a human body which, hopefully, could help students attain comprehensive development towards greater heights of achievement and fulfillment.
A good number of researches focused on student fitness and anthropometry, but none of those were personally known to have deeply concentrated on its relative impact and influence on biokinetics. Hence, this study is conducted so as to ascertain body measurement and its possible effect to fitness and performance. It is for this reason that the BMI and Physical fitness Performance of BPE students will be investigated so as its definition and consequences will be highlighted and established.
But since the complex nature of the aforementioned components of the body-with all its uniqueness- demands more scientific approaches to confirm its significant influence upon the fitness prowess of an individual, it has been asserted that their mensuration data are not sufficient to experimentally validate preconceived assumptions of this study.
Thus, a more popular and reliable method of anthropometry known as the body mass index is emphasized in this research to lend support in dealing with questions which BMI and Physical fitness Performance here is expected to resolve. The primordial function of body mass index on weight rectification justifies its necessity to be equally considered where issues on health and fitness enhancement are concerned.