BRAILLE and accuracy for the same, hence we

BRAILLE PRINTERINNOVATION WORK AND INNOVATION SUMMARYLet’s voluntarily discard one of our most valuable senses, our eyes by blind folding itand try to do so called EASY things like walking AROUND your room or try to puttoothpaste ON the toothbrush head or run BEHIND your pet dog or even simpler try toopen page 356 of your notebook. All these “MATTER OF SECONDS TASKS” becomehumongous in a matter of second.

Well even a little contribution for the people living inthis “DARK WORLD” helps them a tonne and seriously it will be utter shame for ourworld of “ENGINEERING” if these people have to count all way down to PAGE 356 oneby one just to go to a particular page of a book. Inspired with the similar motto we teamDrishti (SVNIT Surat) started to work on a motive to provide them the privilege to readand the texts of the book using the braille language but since the conversion of a normaltext to a braille language required the knowledge and accuracy for the same, hence wedesign a machine which converts the writings of a book simply by recognizing it using acamera and print in a braille language at the desired paper.The goal of this project is to produce a low cost braille embosser.

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The production priceof a complete braille embosser must be much less than what is currently on the marketto meet the needs of the blind community. The printer must adhere to standard braillefont size with accuracy and repeatability.We can divide the project in 2 parts as mechanical and electronics side. Frommechanical side, a new design for a mechanical assembly and its interface withelectronic controls in order to emboss braille is mentioned in this abstract. Cost and sizereduction will be the major priority.

The entire mechanical assembly is an upgrade of 2Dimensional Plotter prototype already built with minor modifications. The individual dotsembossed on the paper are made by applying force to pins in a 2×3 pin pack. Thisdesign considers each braille character as two independent columns of three dots asopposed to an entire 2×3 matrix of six dots thus drastically reducing the number ofpossible combinations of dots.

Every permutation for a column of dots, a half braillecharacter, is extruded on the wheel. Two wheels are independently rotated by steppermotor to form a braille character which then presses braille pins into the paper. Rackand pinion mechanism is used for up-down motion of the wheels.Force required for embossing is around 5 N which may take no longer than 15 minutesto print a page. Braille paper is continuously fed into the printer while the embossingmechanism moves perpendicular to the feed of the paper. Now comes the work wherewe give the brains and the senses to our system to synchronize the work of all thesystems.

The system will feed itself with the image of the page which consists of thewords, letters and paragraphs. The process of Optical Character Recognition whichuses either NEURAL NETWORKS or SVM will convert the image from image to textfield and the preinstalled memory consists of the characters corresponding to eachcharacter of the text field and the corresponding pins of the mechanism will be actuatedby the system. We have estimated cost of the project to be nearly 40,000 Rs.a. IntroductionInspired with the similar motto we team Drishti (SVNIT Surat) started to work ona motive to provide blind people. the privilege to read and the texts of the bookusing the braille language but since the conversion of a normal text to a braillelanguage required the knowledge and accuracy for the same, hence we design amachine which converts the writings of a book simply by recognizing it using acamera and print in a braille language at the desired paper.b. motivationDespite having one of the largest population of visually impaired people, the literacy rateamong blind people is very low in our country.

A majority of this population resides inrural areas where awareness regarding braille is low. Also, there is a huge shortage ofBraille teachers. But one of the main reasons for low literacy rate among blind people isdue to lack of efficient teaching aids like books. Even though technology is advancing ata very high speed, there has been no or very little change in the manufacturing ofcommercial Braille Printers, which is very expensive and hence not affordable byindividuals and small-scale teaching institutions. While many audio formats of booksand other assistive technology available in the markets, braille printed books are stillessential for every blind person and they should learn it. Since Braille has beeninternationally accepted as the official communications system for the blind so a blindperson that can read and write Braille is considered literate. On the other hand, one whocannot use Braille is considered illiterate, even though that person can use assistivetechnology to read and write.

Moving on, a blind person who learns manual reading andwriting has a better foundation of knowledge when starting to use more advancedtechnology. Such skills and knowledge are very important in finding a suitable job. Thus,with proper foundation of braille one can easily find a job and add to economy of thecountry. So we think to design and produce a low cost and user-friendly Braille Printerof a reasonable size. This will help the blind community enjoy the basic right ofeducation.

Also, we plan to make a software which will create a Braille document fromany digital file and print it. This will help in publishing books for the blind.We are also including a feature which enables the user to type in English and themachine will print it in Braille script.

c. Component of Innovation / Concept behind the workCommercial braille printers cost nearly 1.3 Lakh while the estimated worth of our Brailleprinter is nearly 40,000 Rs. In braille embossers currently available in market, solenoidis used for embossing paper which is quite costly. The solenoid when used also shouldbe accompanied by cooling mechanism to prevent excessive heating and hence fansare provided in commercial braille printers. Also, the solenoid consumes large amount of current but has low efficiency.

While we have used mechanical assembly in ourprinter and its interface with electronic controls in order to emboss braille. Thecommercially available braille printer uses combinations of 6 dots at a time to print asingle alphabet while we have designed to print a complete alphabet at a time withcombination of pair of 3 pins separately. Reducing the number of combinations ofbraille dots we can effectively and easily print an alphabet. The mechanism uses twooctagonal figures, the sides of which will have all combinations in both octagons andproper rotation of stepper motor can get any letter of braille script.d.

Details of the work / description of innovation / how it worksWe can divide the project in 2 parts as mechanical and electronics side. Frommechanical side, a new design for a mechanical assembly and its interface withelectronic controls in order to emboss braille is mentioned in this abstract. Cost and sizereduction will be the major priority. The entire mechanical assembly is an upgrade of 2Dimensional Plotter prototype already built with minor modifications. The individual dotsembossed on the paper are made by applying force to pins in a 2×3 pin pack. Thisdesign considers each braille character as two independent columns of three dots asopposed to an entire 2×3 matrix of six dots thus drastically reducing the number ofpossible combinations of dots. Every permutation for a column of dots, a half braillecharacter, is extruded on the wheel.

Two wheels are independently rotated by steppermotor to form a braille character which then presses braille pins into the paper. Rackand pinion mechanism is used for up-down motion of the wheels.Force required for embossing is around 5 N which may take no longer than 15 minutesto print a page. Braille paper is continuously fed into the printer while the embossingmechanism moves perpendicular to the feed of the paper. Now comes the work wherewe give the brains and the senses to our system to synchronize the work of all thesystems. The system will feed itself with the image of the page which consists of thewords, letters and paragraphs. The process of Optical Character Recognition whichuses either NEURAL NETWORKS or SVM will convert the image from image to textfield and the preinstalled memory consists of the characters corresponding to eachcharacter of the text field and the corresponding pins of the mechanism will be actuatedby the system.

We have estimated cost of the project to be nearly 40,000 Rs.e. applicationsThe following results are expected by our project:1. To efficiently print a Braille text entered through a standard keyboard.2. To facilitate typing and printing by directly entering the Braille characters.

3. To print a digital file by converting it into a Braille document.4. Reasonable cost of Braille Printer.5. To create impact on most of the proportion of blind community in the world.f.

Impact of projectINDIA accounts for 20% of global blind population. Despite technological advancementsin audio interfacing and other technologies, the blind community in INDIA still relieslargely on braille for communication and documentation. Printing e-mails, forms andreports for personal use as well as distribution of material is critical for the blindcommunity. Current products on the market retail for at least 1,30,000 Rs.

, a financialburden that institutions and blind individuals often cannot bear.Our project is quite cheap compared to present day braille embosser available in themarket. Hence, it will enable the blind community to print forms, emails in comparativelymuch lower price but with the same accuracy. It will also help to increase the literacyrate among blind people. So it will contribute to uplift the blind community.

g. Challengesa. To minimize its weight and cost .

b. Achieve Proper alignment of everything is big challenge . every time2 or 3 mm error are there.

h. future scopeOur Braille Printer is drastically cheaper than the ones commercially available.This willenable the use of these printers for educational and recreational purposes and thus willhelp in upliftment of the blind community. Also, by integrating many features the projectprovides the benefit of many features combined into a single product.

Some of whichinclude:? Braille typing.? English to Braille typing.? Converting a digital document and printing it in Braille script.