Breadfruit per year with potentials for exceeding 100million

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a crop native to
Malaysia and countries of the South Pacific and the Caribbean (Taylor and Tuia,
2007; Ajani et al., 2012). It is
widely cultivated to appreciable extent in South-West States of Nigeria.
Present level of breadfruit production in the South-Western Nigeria has been
estimated to about 10 million tonnes dry weight per year with potentials for
exceeding 100million tonnes every year (Ajani et al.,  2012).  Breadfruit (Artocarpus
altilis) could also be abundantly  found in Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria as the
crop could nearly be seen in the compound of most dwellers of the ancient city
(Akanbi et al., 2009) . It is a fruit tree
that is propagated with the root cuttings and the average age of bearing first
crop is between 4 to 6 years (Amusa et al.,
2002). The tree has a great productive ability with an average sized tree
producing 400 to 600 fruits per year (NTBG, 2009). It produces fruit twice a
year, from March to June and from July to September with some fruiting
throughout the year. Breadfruit is highly nutritious, cheap and readily
available in overwhelming abundance during its season, it has found limited
applications in the food industries (Omobuwajo, 2003).The breadfruit pulps are
made into various dishes; it can be pounded, fried, boiled, or mashed to make
porridge; it can also be processed into flour and used in bread and biscuit
making (Amusa et al., 2002).
Breadfruit has also been reported to be rich in fat, ash, fibre and protein
(Ragone, 1997). Breadfruits are very rich in starch and before being eaten,
they are roasted, baked, fried or boiled. Because breadfruits usually produce
large crops at certain times of the year, preservation of the harvested fruit
is an issue. Breadfruit can be eaten once cooked, or can be further processed
into varieties of food. A common product is a mixture of cooked or fermented
breadfruit mash mixed with coconut milk and baked in banana leaves. Whole fruit
can be cooked in an open fire, then cored and filled with other foods such as
coconut milk, sugar and butter, cooked meats or other fruits. Breadfruit is
roughly 25% Carbohydrate and 70% water. It has an average amount of vitamin C
(20mg/100g), small amounts of minerals (potassium and zinc) and thiamin
(100µg/100g), (Ragone, 2006).

            Tiger Nuts Chufa is not a “nut” but
a “Tuber”. This tuber was discovered more than 4000 years ago and has been
cultivated ever since in more or less quantities. In dimension it form 8mm –
16mm, smaller sizes are not used for human consumption, its shape is usually
long or round with a brown colour. When hydrated it has a smooth tender, sweet
and refreshing taste, when dehydrated its slightly harder (nut texture) but
with a rather intense and concentrated taste, unfortunately, the dehydration
process makes the tiger nuts skin wrinkled. Its cultivation period is from
March –December. It has other names like zulu nut, yellow nut grass, ground
almond, edible rush and rush nut, earth chest nut and edible galingale. In
Nigeria the Hausas call it Aya, Yoruba’s imumu, the Igbos ofio, akihausa in
Southern Nigeria (Morton et al.,
1987). It is cultivated both as livestock food and for human consumption of the
tubers, eaten raw or baked. It is believed that they helped to heart attacks,
thrombosis and cancer especially of the Colon (Bamishaye et al.,2010), relieve indigestion especially when accompanied by
halitosis, beneficial to diabetics and those seeking to reduce cholesterol or
loss weight, hasten the inception of menstruation and in China the tuber is
considered stimulant somatic, sedative and tonic(Maton et al., 1993). Along with high energy content (Starch, fats,
sugars, proteins) they are rich in minerals such as phosphorus and potassium
and in vitamins E, C. soluble glucose and oleic acid. Typically 100g Tiger nuts
contains 386kcal (1635kj) as 7% proteins, 26% fats (oils), 31% starch, 21%
glucose. Then contain 26% fiber of which 14% is non-soluble and 12%soluble
(Bamishaiye et al.,2010).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

            “Pupuru” is a
fermented cassava-based product dried by smoking (Daramola et al., 2010). It is commonly consumed by the people living in the
Riverine areas of the western, southern, eastern and the middle belts of
Nigeria, where it is also known as “Ikwurikwu” (Shittu et al; 2001;Aboaba et al;1988).
The technology of “Pupuru” processing originates from the Ilaje people of the
Riverine area of Ondo state in Nigeria (Daramola et al., 2003). Pupuru is fermented traditionally by soaking cassava
in water for about 3-5days to become soft. After fermentation the wet mash is
packed into sack and dewatered in a mechanical press. The fibres are
hand-picked from the mash and are molded into ball or circular shape and placed
over fire to smoke dry. The resulting products are spherical-like material with
brown appealing appearance. The outer covering is then scraped off with knife
and the inner white component is sieved into pupuru flour. According to Shittu et al., 2005 after drying the dirty
outer crust of the balls are scraped off and the inner portion is pounded
lightly to form large crumbs or powdered which may be soaked in cold water for
about 5 minutes before boiling with constant stirring till it forms visco-elastic
dough that is eaten with vegetable soup. The cooked dough is realised due to
its unique characteristics flavour and aroma that distinguishes it from other
fermented cassava products like “fufu” and “lafun” Smoke heat is believed to
impact some characteristics flavour and aroma to this product. Opeke et al (1986) reported that pupuru is a
major income earning venture and plays a significant role in ensuring food
security for some people in Nigeria. At least as many as 4-6million people in
Nigeria and more in other African Countries eat “Pupuru” (Aiyesanmi et al., 1998).

Pupuru and other cassava product are widely accepted
and consumed in Nigeria. Pupuru is an important food, the consumption of which
is steady and increasing in Nigeria. It has been produced from cassava as the
raw material. In Nigeria pupuru production from breadfruit is limited and
cassava is used to meet the needs of the product and others such as; fufu,
garri, starch which leads to scarcity of cassava. Effort has been made to
promote the use of breadfruit by processing breadfruit into pupuru flour,
thereby decreasing the demand of cassava and producing an enriched product. The
use of breadfruit for pupuru will
help to reduce scarcity of cassava in Nigeria and also reduce underutilization
of breadfruit thereby enhancing the utilization of the crop.This project was
aimed at processing breadfruit into pupuru flour and examining its taste,
performance in terms of proximate composition, sensory qualities when fortified
with tigernut flour. The addition of tigernut to the product to enrich it,
because tigernut has a high energy content, rich in minerals, and also increase
the nutrient value of the product. The goal of this work was to produce an
enriched pupuru with tiger nut from
breadfruit with the objectives of determining some chemical, physiochemical and
functional properties of pupuru analogue enriched with tiger nut at different
proportion and to determine the sensory properties of the meal from pupuru
flour analogue.