Breadfruit per year with potentials for exceeding 100million

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a crop native toMalaysia and countries of the South Pacific and the Caribbean (Taylor and Tuia,2007; Ajani et al., 2012). It iswidely cultivated to appreciable extent in South-West States of Nigeria.Present level of breadfruit production in the South-Western Nigeria has beenestimated to about 10 million tonnes dry weight per year with potentials forexceeding 100million tonnes every year (Ajani et al.,  2012).  Breadfruit (Artocarpusaltilis) could also be abundantly  found in Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria as thecrop could nearly be seen in the compound of most dwellers of the ancient city(Akanbi et al.

, 2009) . It is a fruit treethat is propagated with the root cuttings and the average age of bearing firstcrop is between 4 to 6 years (Amusa et al.,2002).

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The tree has a great productive ability with an average sized treeproducing 400 to 600 fruits per year (NTBG, 2009). It produces fruit twice ayear, from March to June and from July to September with some fruitingthroughout the year. Breadfruit is highly nutritious, cheap and readilyavailable in overwhelming abundance during its season, it has found limitedapplications in the food industries (Omobuwajo, 2003).The breadfruit pulps aremade into various dishes; it can be pounded, fried, boiled, or mashed to makeporridge; it can also be processed into flour and used in bread and biscuitmaking (Amusa et al., 2002).Breadfruit has also been reported to be rich in fat, ash, fibre and protein(Ragone, 1997).

Breadfruits are very rich in starch and before being eaten,they are roasted, baked, fried or boiled. Because breadfruits usually producelarge crops at certain times of the year, preservation of the harvested fruitis an issue. Breadfruit can be eaten once cooked, or can be further processedinto varieties of food.

A common product is a mixture of cooked or fermentedbreadfruit mash mixed with coconut milk and baked in banana leaves. Whole fruitcan be cooked in an open fire, then cored and filled with other foods such ascoconut milk, sugar and butter, cooked meats or other fruits. Breadfruit isroughly 25% Carbohydrate and 70% water. It has an average amount of vitamin C(20mg/100g), small amounts of minerals (potassium and zinc) and thiamin(100µg/100g), (Ragone, 2006).            Tiger Nuts Chufa is not a “nut” buta “Tuber”. This tuber was discovered more than 4000 years ago and has beencultivated ever since in more or less quantities. In dimension it form 8mm –16mm, smaller sizes are not used for human consumption, its shape is usuallylong or round with a brown colour.

When hydrated it has a smooth tender, sweetand refreshing taste, when dehydrated its slightly harder (nut texture) butwith a rather intense and concentrated taste, unfortunately, the dehydrationprocess makes the tiger nuts skin wrinkled. Its cultivation period is fromMarch –December. It has other names like zulu nut, yellow nut grass, groundalmond, edible rush and rush nut, earth chest nut and edible galingale.

InNigeria the Hausas call it Aya, Yoruba’s imumu, the Igbos ofio, akihausa inSouthern Nigeria (Morton et al.,1987). It is cultivated both as livestock food and for human consumption of thetubers, eaten raw or baked.

It is believed that they helped to heart attacks,thrombosis and cancer especially of the Colon (Bamishaye et al.,2010), relieve indigestion especially when accompanied byhalitosis, beneficial to diabetics and those seeking to reduce cholesterol orloss weight, hasten the inception of menstruation and in China the tuber isconsidered stimulant somatic, sedative and tonic(Maton et al., 1993). Along with high energy content (Starch, fats,sugars, proteins) they are rich in minerals such as phosphorus and potassiumand in vitamins E, C. soluble glucose and oleic acid. Typically 100g Tiger nutscontains 386kcal (1635kj) as 7% proteins, 26% fats (oils), 31% starch, 21%glucose.

Then contain 26% fiber of which 14% is non-soluble and 12%soluble(Bamishaiye et al.,2010).             “Pupuru” is afermented cassava-based product dried by smoking (Daramola et al., 2010). It is commonly consumed by the people living in theRiverine areas of the western, southern, eastern and the middle belts ofNigeria, where it is also known as “Ikwurikwu” (Shittu et al; 2001;Aboaba et al;1988).The technology of “Pupuru” processing originates from the Ilaje people of theRiverine area of Ondo state in Nigeria (Daramola et al.

, 2003). Pupuru is fermented traditionally by soaking cassavain water for about 3-5days to become soft. After fermentation the wet mash ispacked into sack and dewatered in a mechanical press.

The fibres arehand-picked from the mash and are molded into ball or circular shape and placedover fire to smoke dry. The resulting products are spherical-like material withbrown appealing appearance. The outer covering is then scraped off with knifeand the inner white component is sieved into pupuru flour. According to Shittu et al., 2005 after drying the dirtyouter crust of the balls are scraped off and the inner portion is poundedlightly to form large crumbs or powdered which may be soaked in cold water forabout 5 minutes before boiling with constant stirring till it forms visco-elasticdough that is eaten with vegetable soup. The cooked dough is realised due toits unique characteristics flavour and aroma that distinguishes it from otherfermented cassava products like “fufu” and “lafun” Smoke heat is believed toimpact some characteristics flavour and aroma to this product. Opeke et al (1986) reported that pupuru is amajor income earning venture and plays a significant role in ensuring foodsecurity for some people in Nigeria. At least as many as 4-6million people inNigeria and more in other African Countries eat “Pupuru” (Aiyesanmi et al.

, 1998).Pupuru and other cassava product are widely acceptedand consumed in Nigeria. Pupuru is an important food, the consumption of whichis steady and increasing in Nigeria. It has been produced from cassava as theraw material. In Nigeria pupuru production from breadfruit is limited andcassava is used to meet the needs of the product and others such as; fufu,garri, starch which leads to scarcity of cassava. Effort has been made topromote the use of breadfruit by processing breadfruit into pupuru flour,thereby decreasing the demand of cassava and producing an enriched product.

Theuse of breadfruit for pupuru willhelp to reduce scarcity of cassava in Nigeria and also reduce underutilizationof breadfruit thereby enhancing the utilization of the crop.This project wasaimed at processing breadfruit into pupuru flour and examining its taste,performance in terms of proximate composition, sensory qualities when fortifiedwith tigernut flour. The addition of tigernut to the product to enrich it,because tigernut has a high energy content, rich in minerals, and also increasethe nutrient value of the product. The goal of this work was to produce anenriched pupuru with tiger nut frombreadfruit with the objectives of determining some chemical, physiochemical andfunctional properties of pupuru analogue enriched with tiger nut at differentproportion and to determine the sensory properties of the meal from pupuruflour analogue.