Breast per year starting from age 50 is

Breast cancer is a main
public issue and its cases increased in recent years . In 2012, it is estimated
that  about one and a half million women
were examined with cancer in Europe, among which 464,000 new breast cancer cases
and the expected death is 131,000 (Ferlay et al., 2013). The reduction in
cancer death can be achieved by early detection of breast lesions through
screening programs ( Perry et al., 2008). Mammography is the most widely used
method to examine breast cancer in asymptomatic women. Generally, there are two
methods of cancer screening, detection of
cancer in early stages where the purpose is to prevents cancer from spreading
to other organs, and prevention of the disease by finding and removing
premalignant biomarkers of cancer ( Loberg et al., 2015). Mammography screening
is widely available in many countries. In the UK, The screening program invites
women aged 50-70 years for mammography every three years. In the US and Canada,
women invited for screening either two or three times per year starting from
age 50 is recommended ( Baum, 2014). Recently, there has been a debate over the
benefits and harms of the program and that not only unique in the UK. In 2002,
the International Agency for Research on Cancer at the World health Organisation re-examined the proof of the screening program and put forward
recommendations on more research needed and also to apply the screening program
(IARC, 2002). The US Preventive Services Taskforce
in 2009 reviewed the efficacy of different modalities of breast cancer
screening. They recommend that women aged 50-70 to be screened biennial rather
than once and those under the age of 50 not to be screened (Woolf, 2010). The
Canadian Taskforce On Preventive
Healthcare concluded that the reduction
in cancer death is small for women aged 40-70 years at average risk of breast cancer
and overdiagnosis is greater than benefit for younger women (Canadian Taskforce On Preventive Healthcare, 2011). In
these days, the debate focused on how many lives are saved attributed to
screening, the risk of overdiagnosed
women, and the way that the benefits and harms are communicated to women who
undergo screening. Therefore, the principle of this paper is to the arguments
for and against breast cancer screening program.