The Early Councils (Outline two importance of the first two councils)o After the apparent death of the Lord Buddha, there was a meeting between the Artist (holy men) to agree on the teachings of Lord Buddha. That council was set up at Rajah, where people recited the Dharma. O A second council was set up seventy years later as there was a disagreement where some monks were behaving according to the Vienna. O These councils were important as the Sang got to decide the teachings of the Dharma and how they should live it out. Three Schools of Buddhism (Outline the unique features of the 3 schools)o The Tetrahedral school of Buddhism exists throughout the countries of South-East Asia (Vietnam, Sir Lankan, and Malaysia). It is known as the “School of the Elders” and is the oldest of the three schools. It teaches that only men can become enlightened and that they must be part of the Sang. They believe in the teachings of karma, samara and nirvana, and accept the Tripartite as a sacred text. O The Mahayana school of Buddhism is found in Northern Asia (China, Japan, and Korea).
They also accept the Tripartite but differ with Tetrahedral on five points. They believe that Lord Buddha was one of many Buddha that holy man and women begin spiritual journeys by taking the Bodhisattva vow and they interpret nirvana differently. They also believe that living a good life and meditation increases wisdom, and they accept there texts as sacred. O The Vagrancy school of Buddhism is practiced in Tibet and Nepal. It adopts the local beliefs and customs of the people, like incorporating local gods and goddesses into their belief system. Enlightenment is achieved through the guidance of gurus according to them.
They teach two principal paths: The Right Hand Path which encourages the use of mantras (sounds and phrases), madras (bodily the worship of goddesses (Sheath’s) and recognizes the powers and temptation of demons. PRINCIPAL BELIEFS 0 The Three Jewels BUDDHA o Lord Buddha is seen as an enlightened human being by Buddhists. O Therefore it’s believed by Buddhists that all can achieve enlightenment. O He is called Lord Buddha because he reawakened the Dharma o His teachings are known as the Four Noble Truths, which contains the Eightfold Path to Perfection. His enlightenment taught that people are responsible for their own success DHARMA o The Dharma is the teachings of the Buddha o It contains the description of the human condition, and how to overcome it o It is found in the Tripartite, and also other sacred texts. O Is the lived experience of Buddhism throughout the ages. SANG o Is the universal community of Buddhists, specifically pieces and nuns. The leader of the community is the person regarded to have the highest level of spiritual development o Also a female group but female have more rules and must respect men. Monks observe five precepts more than the average person: 0 No food is consumed after midday 0 Nuns/Priests must avoid entertainments and military parades No sleeping on high beds 0 No handling of gold and silver 0 Dress appropriately according to code of monastery. 0 The Four Noble Truths (Describe the significance of The Four Noble Truths) The Four Noble Truths are the most insightful understandings about the human condition. The Noble Truths were discovered by the Lord Buddha when he was meditating under the Booth Tree and is said to end all suffering.
This includes figuring out that a person suffers because of craving, and to end suffering one merely needs to cease craving. Not only are the Four Noble Truths at the heart of Buddhism, they encourage spiritual development which leads to enlightenment. 0 Marks of Existence o Monica is the belief that everything changes over time, that everything is impermanent. O Anta is the teaching that there is no permanent self. Humans do not possess a soul and the only thing carried over is karma. Dakar is the failure to realism that there is no permanent self.
It is the suffering that humans feel when they believe their life is unsatisfying, and they think that certain things will bring them Connection between Karma and Samara o Karma is the consequence of any intentional act. Good deeds bring good karma, and bad deeds bring bad karma. O Samara is the cycle of rebirth, which after one dies, they are born again. O The rebirth is determined on the amount of karma that person ha. The most desirable rebirth is to be born as a human. Good karma may result in someone being born as an upper-class human, whereas bad karma may exult in a rebirth as an insect.
Importance of Nirvana in Buddhism o Nirvana is the ultimate goal for all Buddhists. O It is the realization that everything is an illusion, an awakening to the true reality of the universe. O Is the complete dismissal of objects to be desirable and everlasting. SACRED TEXTS & WRITINGS Identify the importance of Tripartite, Lotus of the Good Law, Tibetan Book of the Dead Tripartite o The most important text in Buddhism o Is split up into three parts: Vienna UAPITA, Status UAPITA, Bathrooms Pivotal The first part of the Tripartite is the Vienna UAPITA, which sets out the rules and expectations for the Sang.
It sets out how to behave and how to discipline monks after he has broken one or more of the rules. O The second part is the Status UAPITA, which includes sayings of the Buddha and stories about his life. It is important for Buddhists as it highlights essential teachings (Dharma) and helps them achieve Nirvana. O The last part is the Bathrooms UAPITA, which are a philosophical work meant for intellects, which teaches about the make-up of the human and the fundamental laws of karma. Lotus of the Good Law o A Mahayana text that teaches about the powers of the Divine Buddha.
Parables and anecdotes about the Buddha life o Shows an alternate path to achieve Nirvana Tibetan Book of the Dead o Shows how someone can affect their rebirth during their lifetime o Guide about the process of dying and being reborn. 0 The Five Precepts o Sentient life forms are creatures that can respond to the environment o Seen to bring bad karma o Less serious if small animal killed, most serious if human is killed 2. Never to take what is not given o Discourages stealing or taking of item that don’t belong to them. O Not only refers to possessions but also intellectual ideas. 3.
Never to harm anyone through sensual pleasures. O Any sexual act that is harmful to others is not permitted. O Also to avoid Scandinavian our neighbor 4. Avoid harming anyone through speech o Emphasizes honesty in order to achieve enlightenment o Any use of language that abuses, demeans or insults is to be avoided. 5. Avoid all mind-changing substances o Clarity of mind is important when going on the spiritual path. O Alcohol and drugs should be avoided. 0 The Vienna o The Vienna is the first part of the Tripartite o Outlines the rules by which monks should live by. They have five more rules:
No food is consumed after midday PERSONAL DEVOTION pupas Pupas is seen as an individual or family devotion which may be performed at any time during the day or night. There is normally a place set up for pupas which may consist of simply a statue or picture of the Buddha. The person is to be clean before praying and families may chant prayers or recite parts of sacred texts. A person will bow three times before the shrine to symbolism the Buddha, Sang and Dharma. Offerings are made in the form of flowers or fresh fruit. The area of pupas is the most important place in the home and is only used for pupas and meditation.