Cancer herbal medicine to treat a variety of

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the total number ofcancer cases is increasing globally. According to the World Health Organization(WHO), the number of global cancer deaths is projected to increase by 45% from7.9 million in 2007 to 11.5 million in 2030 (WHO, 2014).

  Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most commonprimary hepatic malignancy worldwide. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinomais increasing in many countries. The estimated number of new cases annually isover 500,000, in USA and the yearly incidence comprises between 2.5 and 7% ofpatients with liver cirrhosis. The incidence varies between differentgeographic areas, being higher in developing areas; males are predominantlyaffected, with a 2:3 male/female ratio (Montalto et al., 2002).

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         The WHO (2015)highlighted that there are around 350 million people suffering from chronichepatitis B and around 170 million people suffering from chronic hepatitis C(HCV) worldwide. HCV chronic form associated with cirrhosis of the liver andhepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), i.e. cancer of the liver. (Mohd Hanafiah etal., 2013).

         Flavonoids are lowmolecular weight phenolic compounds that are widely distributed throughout theplant kingdom (Martinez, et al., 2003). They are diverse in chemicalstructure and characteristics and can be found ubiquitously in fruits,vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, as well as beverages such as tea, redwine, coffee, and beer (Middleton and Kandaswami ,1993).        It is now clear that these compounds are bioactive also in animals andhumans who consume them (Hannum, 2004). Diet-derived flavonoids are recognized to possess antiallergic,antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antioxidant, antiradical, antidiabetic,antiatherosclerotic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic,antiviral, antibacterial, antibiotic, antifungal, antiangiogenic,antiproliferative, and anticarcinogenic activities (Avci,et al., 2011 and Lolli, et al., 2012).       Gingerol, the majorcompound of Zingiber officinale rhizomes and proved to exhibit a wide array ofbiochemical and pharmacological activities (Bode and Dong, 2011) .

Ginger (Zingiber officinale, RoscoeZingiberaceae) is one of the most widely consumed spices worldwide. From itsorigin in Southeast Asia and its spread to Europe, it has a long history of useas herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments including vomiting, pain,indigestion, and coldinduced syndromes (White, 2007). More recently, itwas reported that ginger also possessed anti-cancer, anticlotting,antiinflammatory, and analgesic activities ( El-Naggar  et al., 2017).However, there is less emphasis on the effects of ginger in management ofmetabolic diseases and their complications.