Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the total number of
cancer cases is increasing globally. According to the World Health Organization
(WHO), the number of global cancer deaths is projected to increase by 45% from
7.9 million in 2007 to 11.5 million in 2030 (WHO, 2014). Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common
primary hepatic malignancy worldwide. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma
is increasing in many countries. The estimated number of new cases annually is
over 500,000, in USA and the yearly incidence comprises between 2.5 and 7% of
patients with liver cirrhosis. The incidence varies between different
geographic areas, being higher in developing areas; males are predominantly
affected, with a 2:3 male/female ratio (Montalto et al., 2002).
The WHO (2015)
highlighted that there are around 350 million people suffering from chronic
hepatitis B and around 170 million people suffering from chronic hepatitis C
(HCV) worldwide. HCV chronic form associated with cirrhosis of the liver and
hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), i.e. cancer of the liver. (Mohd Hanafiah et
Flavonoids are low
molecular weight phenolic compounds that are widely distributed throughout the
plant kingdom (Martinez, et al., 2003). They are diverse in chemical
structure and characteristics and can be found ubiquitously in fruits,
vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, as well as beverages such as tea, red
wine, coffee, and beer (Middleton and Kandaswami ,1993).
It is now clear that these compounds are bioactive also in animals and
humans who consume them (Hannum, 2004).
Diet-derived flavonoids are recognized to possess antiallergic,
antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antioxidant, antiradical, antidiabetic,
antiatherosclerotic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic,
antiviral, antibacterial, antibiotic, antifungal, antiangiogenic,
antiproliferative, and anticarcinogenic activities (Avci,
et al., 2011 and Lolli, et al., 2012).
Gingerol, the major
compound of Zingiber officinale rhizomes and proved to exhibit a wide array of
biochemical and pharmacological activities (Bode and Dong,
2011) . Ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe
Zingiberaceae) is one of the most widely consumed spices worldwide. From its
origin in Southeast Asia and its spread to Europe, it has a long history of use
as herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments including vomiting, pain,
indigestion, and coldinduced syndromes (White, 2007). More recently, it
was reported that ginger also possessed anti-cancer, anticlotting,
antiinflammatory, and analgesic activities ( El-Naggar et al., 2017).
However, there is less emphasis on the effects of ginger in management of
metabolic diseases and their complications.