Case Studies

Chernobyl, Ukraine
explosion in the then-Russinan nuclear power plant sent highly radioactive debris throughout Northern Europe
3- Mile Island
Reactor lost its coolant and the core melted
Dust Bowl
Caused by the plowing of praires and loss of natural grasses that rooted the soil.  Drought and winds blew topsoil away
Mt. St. Helens
Washington State. 3 zones of damage- tree removal, tree downes and seared.

ANWR
Controversy over whether the Artic National Wildlife ERfuge should be drilled for oil
Galapogos Finches
14 different species on different islands 600 miles off the coast of Ecuador. Example of allopatric speciation and adaptive radiation (with geographic isolation)
Wolf and Moose Interactions on Isle Royale
Minnesota- cyclical predator-prey cycle
China
reduced crude birth rate by 1/2. mot effective and strict family planning in the world. Economic incentives.
India
1st family planning program. Poor planning, low satus of women, favoring males, poverty
Aral Sea
2 rivers were diverted from emptying into the this sea making the sea lose 2/3 of its volume and is heavily salinated and polluted
Aswan High Dam- Egypt
built to supply irrigation water- lose 1/2 due too seepage and teh rest to evaporation
Chespeake Bay, Maryland
shallow bay that doesn’t flush out all of the fertilizers, pesticides entering it- eutrophication
Colorado River Basin
Diversion of water from Colorado River has led to disputes over water rights- the dams trap large amounts of silt and prevent it from being deposited downstream
James Bay Project- Canada
Diversionnof 3 rivers into Hudson Bay to generate electicity resulted in the massive flooding of lands of the Cree Nation
Ogallala Aquifer
underlies 8 states- once held the most water but has now been depleted
3 Gorges Dam
worlds largest hydroelectric dam on the Yangtze River- relocated mnay people
Bhopal, India
Cyanide gas leaked from apesticide plant owned by Union Carbide
Borneo
WHo sprayed lots of DDT on this place to kill mosquitoes after a malaria outbreak
Donora, PA
Thermal inversions trapped SO2, CO and metal dust from steel mills
Exxon Valdez
oil tanker hits rocks in Prince William Sound, Alaska
London Fog
4 day fog pollution (thermal inversion) killed roughly 4000 Londoners- started Clean Air Act in London
Reformulated Gasoline
Clean Air Act required 17 urban centers to dd 2% oxygenations to gasoline to require them to burn more completely and reduce VOCs and other emissions
Khian Sea
Philly had 14,000 tons of incinerator ash- New Jersey refused it- loaded onto a ship and roamed the world for two years.

Disappeared at sea.

Love Canal-Niagra Falls
20000 tons of toxic waste buries and covered with soil.  Sold to school board for $1 and became housing, etc.

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Led to RCRA/CERCLA (Superfund)

Agent Orange
used as a defoliant in Vietnam War
Mininmata, Japan
manufacturing plant allowed mercury into bay, biomagnification caused damage to nervous system
Times Beach, Missouri
oil sprayed on raod contained dioxin- town was evacuated and destroyed by government because dioxin interrupts the endocrine, immune and reproductive system