CE 3200- Final Exam

Air Quality Control Regions (AQRs)
An area designed by the federal government, where communities share a common air pollution problem
Anthropogenic Sources
(Associated with human activies) Include motor vehicles, fossil fuel burning for electricity and heat, industrial processes, solid waste disposal, and miscellaneous burning of things such as leaves and brush
Attainment Areas
The air quality in the area equals or is better than the primary standard
Nonattainment Areas
The air quality in the area does not meet the primary standard
Catalytic Converter
Device that converts toxic exhaust emissions from an internal combustion engine into non-toxic substances
Chlorofluorocarbons
Compounds made of chlorine atoms, flourine atoms, and a carbon atom that react with the ozone, converting ozone to oxygen, which continuously depletes the ozone layer.
Criteria Pollutants
A list of pollutants developed by the EPA that are considered to be hazardous to health. (CO, Pb, NO2, O3, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5)
Effective Stack Height
The plume height alone, with the physical stack height
Fly Ash
Particulate matter carried in the effluent gases from furnaces burning fossil fuels
Greenhouse Gases
Radioactively active gases that absorb at wavelengths greater than 4 micrometers
Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs)
Regulated through risk-based approach through EPA, called National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)
Heat Island Effect
Cities, which are largely covered in concrete and asphalt, heat the air at ground level more than the countryside.

This heat creates vertical convection currents that help to remove ground level pollutants from the city.

Inversion
Normally, temperatures decrease with height, but when at some point above the ground the temperature increases with height, that area is known as an inversion layer. An inversion layer acts as a ceiling on the air below it, which is bad from a pollution standpoint, because it limits “dilution.

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” Inversion- a “ceiling” of warm air that prevents cold air from rising; an increase of temperature with elevation.

Lapse Rate
A relationship between wind speed and the change in air temperature with height
Mass Transfer
Diffusion process wherein the pollutant gas moves from points of higher concentration to points of lower concentratoin
Maximum Achievable Control Technology
The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) are emission tandards set by the US EPA for an air pollutant not covered by NAAQS that may cause an increase in fatalities or in serious, irreversible, or incapacitating illness.  The standards for a particular source category require the maximum degree of emission reduction that the EPA determines to be achievable, which is known as the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT).
Photolysis
Chemical fragmentation, or rearrangement of a chemical, upon the absorption of radiation of the appropriate wavelength
PM2.5
Particular matter having a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less, and which is easily inhaled  deep into the lungs
PM10
Particulate matter having a diameter of 10 micrometers or less.
Point Source Gaussian Model
An air dispersion model in which it is assumed to flow from a point source to a distance downwind based on the flow rate, wind speed, and plume standard deviations.

PPM
parts per million
Primary Standard
Air quality standards established to protect human health with an “adequate margin of safety”
Regenerative
A type of system in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) where the reagent that removes the sulfur oxides is recovered and reused.
Secondary Pollutant
Photochemical oxidants resulting entirely from atmospheric reactions and not emitted from people or nature
Secondary Standards
Air quality standards intended to prevent environmental and property damage
Stability
The tendency of the atmosphere to resist or enhance vertical motion and is related to the wind speed and temperature change with respect to height.
Synergism
Combinations of pollutants that alone cause no damage are known to create acute effects when combined
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Found in paints and plastics and other places, VOCs are compounds that tend to “leak out” of products over time. These products can reach dangerous levels in a new home.
Movement of Enviromental Regulations
1. National: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)2.

Regional: Region 73. State: MO Code of State Regulations (CSR)              – Title 10: Department of Natural Resources (DNR)State regulations are kept with the Secretary of State. In Missouri, they are kept in the Code of State Regulations (CSR), especially in 10 CSR ##. The 10 designates the roles of the Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

Clean Water Act (CWA)
The Clean Water Act (CWA) deals with the reduction of pollutants in water, especially chemical contaminants. This law led to the development of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) and greater use of permits.

NPDES
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Developed by the CWA, requires a permit to discharge pollutants from point sources to US waters.
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) deals with the reduction of bacterial contamination in drinking water. It led to higher national standards for drinking water quality, as well as the use of Maximum Pollutant Levels (MPLs).
MCLs
Maximum Contaminant Levels: established to be as close to a level that is without known adverse heatlh effects (i.e. states how much of a certain contaminant is allowed in the water).

SWDA
The Solid Waste Disposal Act requires environmentally sound methods of disposal for household, municipal, and industrial waste
RCRA
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is a program known for its “cradle-to-grave” management of hazardous waste. It focuses on the prevention and remediation of unsupervised hazardous waste leaks from facilities still in operation.
CERCLA
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) is a program that deals with the leaking of hazardous waste from facilities no longer in operation (usually). It led to the development of the National Priorities List (NPL), that the EPA must issue.

Also called Superfund, it often deals with the more practical (i.e. monetary) aspects of hazardous waste removal and prevention. The money for this fund comes from a tax upon the chemical and petroleum industries.

Clean Air Act (CAA)
The Clean Air Act (CAA) is an act which reduces the amount of pollutants in the air. It led to the The Clean Air Act (CAA) is an act which focuses on the reduction of contaminants/pollutants in the air. It led the EPA to develop National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), which raise the level of air quality standards.
Uses of fermentation
Fermentation is produced when an organism or organic body decomposes in an anaerobic environment. It leads to the production of methane, which can be captured and burned for energy.
Algal Blooms
Algal blooms are a rapid increase in the population of algae in a marine environment.

It is a result of high concentration of nutrients (fertilizers) in water. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorous cause algae to enlarge and outcompete other organisms, blocking sunlight and causing them to die. The dead organisms become food for bacteria. This process of death and decomposition result in hypoxia in the surrounding water.

Importance of steady state
When something is steady state, d/dt goes to 0 and a reaction is constant. If steady state and conservative reactions are assumed, the input rate of a system will equal the output rate.
Reactant
The reactant is the chemical you add to a system
Target
The chemical/microbe with which you want the reactant to react
Scavenger
Other chemical/microbe with which reatant will react, which you did not intend
Batch Reactor
A batch reactor is a reactor that has no input nor output. It is used to model shallow lakes. Its process is in three stages: fill, react, draw.
Complete Mix Reactor
A Complete Mix Reactor (CMR) is a reactor that is used to model lakes with feed to and from streams. There is instantaneous dispersion and complete mix. It is also called a CFSTR.

Plug Flow Reactor
A Plug Flow Reactor (PFR) is a reactor used to model rivers/estuary systems. Each particle leaves in the order in which it enters; that is, every particle remains in the reactor for the same amount of time (theoretically).
Packed Bed Reactor
A packed bed reactor is a reactor used to model movement in groundwater systems. When pore spaces of sediment are completely full of water, it is said to be saturated.

When pore spaces are not completely filled with water, the sediment is unsaturated.

Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT)
Mean hydraulic retention time is the amount of time water spends in a reactor. It is equal to the volume / flow rate.
Log Growth Curve
The log growth curve is a curve which shows the growth of a population (usually bacteria). It begins with a small, flat line, called the lag phase. This is when the bacteria takes time to adjust to a new environment.

Following this is a small upward curve called the accelerated growth phase, where the bacteria begins to divide. Next, there is a steep linear line called the log growth phase, where there are no limitations on bacterial growth. Following this, the curve will peak and reach a plateau, called the stationary phase, where some limiting factor (i.e. virus, food shortage, lack of space) begins to halt growth.

Once the environment reaches its carrying capacity, the curve will decline in a steep linear line, representing the death phase, or the phase in which the population will die before it can reproduce.

Significance of the Carbon Cycle
Carbon is one of the most abundant elements found in nature. Photosynthesis is the main driving force of the carbon cycle. The ocean, especially its colder depths, is called a sink for carbon, as dissolution increases with depth. Humans can influence the cycle with the combustion of fossil fuels and the heavy reliance on livestock; an overabundance of carbon dioxide can have detrimental effects, such as global temperature rise.
Signficance of the Nitrogen Cycle
In aerobic waters, the nitrogen found naturally will be in the form of nitrate, which enters lake water through groundwater and streams. When the nitrate is taken up by algae, it will become organic nitrogen. When the algae decomposes, the nitrogen become ammonia.

Eventually the ammonia will be oxidized to again become nitrate, through a bacterial process called nitrification. In anaerobic waters, nitrogen will be found in the form of ammonia, which will become nitrogen through a bacterial process. This nitrogen will be lost from the system in a process called denitrification. Human effects on the nitrogen cycle through the use of sewage and livestock which can lead to acid rain and lake acidification.

Significance of the Phosphorous Cycle
Phosphorous is an element that is rarely found in large quantities in unpolluted water. Naturally, it will come from rock weathering or precipitation into a lake.

Human activity (livestock and fertilizer runoff) can cause an increase in phosphorous, which can have detrimental effects on the environment. However, phosphorous can be removed from the lake and into the sediment little by little, in a natural process.

Explain lake turnover
Nearly all deep lakes are stratified- i.e.

they have upper layers of warm, well-mixed water and lower layers of cold, poorly-mixed water. In the fall, the temperatures will drop, causing the upper layers to cool and become denser. As the upper layers falls past the lower, lake turnover occurs.

This process also happens in the spring, as rising temperatures cause the water to warm and rise.

Equation to find pH
pH = -log [H+]
Scrubber
Liquid or solid particles are transferred from a gas stream to a liquid. It is a mass transfer process- the particulate matter is not removed from the system
Cyclone
Centrifugal forces are used to separate particulate from a contaminated gas stream. The particles fall to the bottom and are removed, while the air exits from the top.
Baghouse
Particulates are separated from air through use of bag filters. They can then be shaken (vibrated) or vacuumed out, while the gas is allowed to move through the filters untouched.
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)
An ESP removes particulate matter by charging the particles either negatively or positively, using electrical energy. The particles are then attracted to collector plates of the opposite charge and can be removed.

Point Source Plume Model
Used to estimate distribution of pollutants (i.e. concentration downwind). It is based on effective stack height, type of day, windspeed, etc. Use equations starting with C(x,y) and Cmax.
Area Source Model
Model an area with a specific emission rate, then use accumulation equation. Need l,w,h of box, windspeed (u), emission rate (Q)
Model particulate dispersion- Power Plant
Keep in mind the efficieny of the power plant, and that drag force = gravitational force (where d=diameter)
Hierarchy of Solid Waste Collection 
1. recycling2.

composting3. combustion with energy recovery4. combustion without energy recovery5. landfill Formulated to focus on pollution prevention and waste reduction (maximize landfill lifespan)

Stages of Waste Decomposition
1.

Hydrolysis2. Acetogenesis3. Methogenesis At first an aerobic process, then becomes anaerobic. These conditions lead to combustion and the production of both leachate and methane.

TCLP
TCLP is the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, which uses lab testing to determine the potential hazard of the liquid produced by decomposing waste (leachate)
LNAPL vs. DNAPL
Light Non-Aqueous Permeable Liquid vs. Dense Non-Aqueous Permeable Liquid. LNAPLs are easier to get to (and treat) because they do not sink below the water table
Pump and Treat
Contaminated groundwater is pumped to a treatment center, treated, then returned to the environment
Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB)
Iron particles are injected into the ground, forming a barrier. As groundwater comes throuhg, a chemical reaction occurs. This treats the PCE (or other chemical) in the groundwater.
Excavation
Contaminated area is dug up and removed to be treated
Soil Vapor Extraction
An extraction well is drilled into the contaminated area.

A vacuum then extracts vapors from the contaminated soil.

Bioventing
Air pumps/wells encourage growth of already-present organisms to absorb/break down chemicals
Enhanced Bioremediation
Nutrient/microbial injection enhances organisms to break down chemical in a very efficient manner (i.e. through use of vegetable oil)
Monitored Natural Attenuation
Microbes in soil/filters/vaporization are monitored.
BOD
Biological Oxygen DemandBOD (Lo)Lt=L0e^-kt
Steps in Drinking Water Treatment
1.

Source: Influent ground/well/river water2. Coagulation: dirt and particles suspended in water are attracted together 3. Sedimentation: these heavy particles sink to the bottom and are collected4. Filtration: smaller particles are removed5. Disinfection: chlorination of water in a closed tank6. Storage7. Distribution

Steps in Waste Water Treatment
1. Primary treatment: grit chamber removes large debris (i.

e. sticks, plastics). Smaller material flows into the primary clarifier, where they settle at the bottom and are removed (sludge). 2.

Secondary treatment: Effluent from the first stage is moved to the secondary (biological) stage. It is mixed with controlled population of bacteria and oxygen, allowing the microorganisms to digest the fine organic materials. The water then goes to the clarifier, where biological solids settle and are removed (sludge). 3. Tertiary treatment: Additional filtration removes suspended and dissolved substances. The water is then disinfected and released into the system.