ch. 23

clear-cutting
Method of harveting timber so that all the trees in an area are removed in one single cutting
Selective cutting
cutting intermediate aged trees, diseased, or mature trees, either singly or in a group. This encourages groeth of younger trees and maintains an even-agded stand
controlled burning
Deliberately set, carefully controlled surface fires to reduce flammable litter and decrease the chances of damaging crown fires.–
Crown fire
Extremely hot forest fire that burns ground vegetation and treetops.

most dangerous kind of fire

Debt-for-nature swap
Agreement in which a certain amount of foreign debt is canceled in exchange for local currency investments that will improve natural resource management or protect certain areas in the debtor country from harmful development
Deforstation
Removal of trees from a forested area without adequate replanting
Ecological restoration
Deliberate alteration of a degraded habitat or ecosystem to restore as much of its ecological structure and function as possible
even-aged management
Method of forest management in which trees, sometimes of a single species in a given stand, are maintained at about the same age and size and are harvested all at once
gap analysis
Scientific method used to determine how adequately native plant and animal species and the existing network of conservation lands protects natural communities. Species and communities not adequately represented in existing conservation lands constitute conservation gaps. The idea is to identify these gaps and then eliminate them by establishing new reserves or changing land management practices
ground fire
Fire that burns decayed leaves or peat deep below the ground surface
multiple use
Use of an ecosystem such as a forest for a variety of purposes such as timber harvesting, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreation
old-growth forest
Virgin and old, second-growth forests containing trees that are often hundreds, sometimes thousands of years old. Examples include forests of Douglas fir, western hemlock, giant sequoia, and coastal redwoods in the western United States
restoration ecology
Research and scientific study devoted to restoring, repairing, and reconstructing damaged ecosystems
Secondary-growth forest
Stands of trees resulting from secondary ecological succession
seed tree cutting
Removal of nearly all trees on a site in one cutting, with a few seed-producing trees left uniformly distributed to regenerate the forest
selective cutting
Cutting of intermediate-aged, mature, or diseased trees in an uneven-aged forest stand, either singly or in small groups.

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This encourages the growth of younger trees and maintains an uneven-aged stand

strip cutting
A variation of clear-cutting in which a strip of trees is clear-cut along the contour of the land, with the corridor narrow enough to allow natural regeneration within a few years. After regeneration, another strip is cut above the first, and so on
surface cutting
Forest fire that burns only undergrowth and leaf litter on the forest floor
tree farm
Site planted with one or only a few tree species in an even-aged stand. When the stand matures it is usually harvested by clear-cutting and then replanted.

These farms normally are used to grow rapidly growing tree species for fuelwood, timber, or pulpwood