Ch 8 9 APES Vocab

carrying capacity (K)
Maximum population of a particular species that a given habitat can support over a given period.
environmental resistance
All the limiting factors that act together to limit the growth of a population.
intrinsic rate of increase (r)
Rate at which a population could grow if it had unlimited resources.
K-selected species
Species that produce a few, often fairly large offspring but invest a great deal of time and energy to ensure that most of those offspring reach reproductive age. Compare r-selected species.
population density
Number of organisms in a particular population found in a specified area or volume.
population distribution
Variation of population density over a particular geographic area.

For example, a country has a high population density in its urban areas and a much lower population density in rural areas.

r-selected species
Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period. Compare K-selected species.

survivorship curve
Graph showing the number of survivors in different age groups for a particular species.
age structure
Percentage of the population (or number of people of each sex) at each age level in a population.
crude birth rate
Annual number of live births per 1,000 people in the population of a geographic area at the midpoint of a given year.
crude death rate
Annual number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population of a geographic area at the midpoint of a given year.
demographic transition
Hypothesis that countries, as they become industrialized, have declines in death rates followed by declines in birth rates.
family planning
Providing information, clinical services, and contraceptives to help people choose the number and spacing of children they want to have.
The number of births that occur to an individual woman or in a population.

infant mortality rate
Number of babies out of every 1,000 born each year that die before their first birthday.
life expectancy
Average number of years a newborn infant can be expected to live.
replacement-level fertility
Number of children a couple must have to replace them.

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The average for a country or the world usually is slightly higher than 2 children per couple (2.1 in the United States and 2.5 in some developing countries) because some children die before reaching their reproductive years.

total fertility rate (TFR)
Estimate of the average number of children who will be born alive to a woman during her lifetime if she passes through all her childbearing years (ages 15-44) conforming to age-specific fertility rates of a given year.

In simpler terms, it is an estimate of the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years.